NOTE:  In this Chapter there are pictures of Geo. L. Davenport and Antoine LeClaire's Old Residence.  To view the pictures, please go to the Scott County Main Page and click on Pictures/Documents.





Black Hawk Continued - Treaties - Removals - Invasions - Executive Influence and Alarm - Crossing the Mississippi

     - Stillman's Run - Retreat - Massacre at Bad Axe - Treaty - Close of Black Hawk's History.


In 1823, by the advice of the agent at Fort Armstrong, the larger portion of the Sacs and Foxes, headed by  *Keokuk, removed across the Mississippi.  That portion of the Sac nation which, under the leadership of Black Hawk, had, by their fidelity to the British in 1812, earned the appellation of the "British Band," steadily refused to vacate the Sac village at Rock River.

*KEOKUK - The design of the present Chapter will not allow the name of Keokuk that prominence which his character deserves.  He rose from obscurity to a Chieftainship by the mere force of his talents.  He was a brave warrior, a firm friend to the Americans, and an orator without a rival among the tribes of the North-West.  He was a Sac, and his name denotes th "Watchful Fox."  He eventually superseded Black Hawk, and was, for a long time, head chief of the Sac nation.

The following description is taken from a cotemporaneous work:

"In person, Keokuk is stout, graceful, and commanding, with fine features, and an intelligent countenance.  His broad expanded chest, and muscular limbs, denote activity and physical stength; and he is known to excel in dancing, horsemanship, and all athletic exercises. *   *   *   In point of intellect, and integrity of character, and the capacity for governing others, he is supposed to have no superior among the Indians.  Bold, courageous, and skillful in war - mild, firm, and politic in peace.  He has great enterprise, and active impulses, with a freshness and enthusiasm of feeling, whih might readily lead him astray, but for his quick perception of human character, his uncommon prudence, and his calm sound judgment. *   *   *   Such is Keokuk, the Watchful Fox, who prides himself upon being the friend of the white man. - Life of Black Hawk; Cincinnati.

It has been ascribed to a spirit of rivalry - this difference between Keokuk and Black Hawk, which prevented the latter from adopting the expedient operation of the former by moving over the Mississippi.  I cannot adopt this view - it may have had some influence, but it is entirely too trivial in its nature to influence the important step which Black Hawk took some few years after.  Patriotism, and the love of home - of the village where his tribe had lived for more than a century, and where everything which makes life honorable or desirable had originated, had undoubtedly more influence in Black Hawk's decision than the mere desire of outvieing the rising splendor of Keokuk.  He regarded the Americans as aggressors - he had fought against them in 1812 - his ancestors - his father - himself had lived, hunted, fought, died, and were buried in the Sac village.  He had grown old there - there slept his son; there was every endearment which could be evolved from the past, as well of the savage as the refined - and he could not bring himself to leave them.  There were enough circumstances, apart from his dislike of the Americans, and their ruffianly aggressions, to explain why he left it unwillingly, and how, after leaving it, he returned with a "forlorn hope" to breast the whole force of the United States in an attempt to regain it.

By the terms of the treaty with the United States, the Indians were to retain possession of their lands until they were sold to actual settlers.  Some white families, however, who probably considered as Indian's title to life, land and liberty, as merely nominal, and of no account, when measured against the "Rights" of the white man, moved on to the Sac village.  Not content with thus actually stealing the land, they took advantage of Black Hawk's absence on a hunting expedition to not only fence in the Indian's cornfields, but to take possession of Black Hawk's lodge.  

These whites had established themselves in direct violation of the treaty of 1804.  They continued their aggressions - destroyed the Indian's corn, killed their domestic animals, and whipped their wives and children.  Much against the wishes of Black Hawk, they introduced a traffic in spirituous liquor, and made drunkeness and debauchery common.  The remonstrances of Black Hawk, and other chiefs, were unavailing, equally in regard to the encroachments upon their lands, or the sale of spirituous liquors.  The Indians were regarded as legitimate prey by these harpies - and appeals to their sense of justice or to their reason were alike unavailing.  Black Hawk, upon one occasion, even took the trouble to put in practice a modern principle of action - the Maine law - by knocking in the head of a barrel of whisky, which the owner had continued to vend in spite of the old chief's remonstrances.

This condition of things continued until 1827.  In the winter of this year, while the Indians were absent on their periodical hunt, the whites devised a famous scheme for getting rid of those upon whose lands they were intruding.  It was a well conceived operation - although moralists would call it rather robbery than honorable policy.  It was no less than to expedite the Indians on their destination of the Mississippi, by burning their lodges!  Accordingly, the torch was applied to some forty lodges, which were entirely consumed.  When the Indians returned in the Spring, and required satisfaction for this unwarrantable outrage, they received only fresh insults.

The wigwam of an Indian is inconsiderable - but still so far as right is concerned, there was, in the burning of these lodges, as clear a case of halter-deserving arson as ever fell under the jurisdiction of judicial ermine.  To apply the incendiary torch to one's lodge, and to run the plough-share through the sacred mounds of ancestral graves, are no light provocations, although committed upon the Red man.  When one adds to these, the indignity of blows upon his own person, and worse, upon that of his wife and children, we can nearly or quite excuse him if he applies, as his remedy, the sharpest lex talionis at his command.  Especially is such a result excusable after warning, expostulations, and appeal to higher powers, have signally and utterly failed.

There is always upon the frontier a set of reckless men, speculators, squatters, and loafers, who, devoid of principle and humanity, care less for the rights and lives of others, and especially for those of Indians, than they do for the same qualities in an irrational animal.  Such men held possession of the frontiers in 1827, and such were they who had infringed upon the precincts of the Sac village.

Under the seventh article of the treaty of 1804, it was provided; "that as long as the lands which are now ceded to the United States remain their property, the Indians belonging to said tribes, shall enjoy the privilege of living and hunting upon them."

None of the lands upon the Rock River were brought into the market until 1829, and consequently the Indians, prior to this time, had as much right to them as if they held them in fee simple.  At this time, 1829, the lands purchased in the treaty of 1804, were not offered for sale within sixty miles of this point - yet for the unjustifiable purpose of getting rid of the Indians on the Rock River, the lands upon which the Sac village stood were thrown into the market.

In the spring of 1830, when Black Hawk and his party returned from their winter's hunt, and commenced preparations for planting, they were notified that the land was sold, and that they must remove west of the Mississippi.  Unwilling, however, to remove, he visited Malden to consult his "British Father," and returned by way of Detroit to see General Cass.  Both advised him if he had not sold his land to remain quietly upon it, and he could not be disturbed.  He returned late in the fall, and found his band absent upon their winter's hunt.  Keokuk exerted himself strongly this winter to induce Black Hawk's followers to desert him, and to remove across the Mississippi.  It was in vain.  Their attachment to their village was stronger than any representations of the danger of such a course, and accordingly, in the Spring of 1831, they all returned.  The agent at Rock Island immediately notified them to remove, or troops would be sent to drive them off.  

In the meantime the squaws had commenced planting their corn, which the whites ploughed up.  This enraged Black Hawk, and he threatened to remove the whites by force if they persisted in such proceedings.  The whites became alarmed - a startling memorial was drawn up, concluding, after enumerating a long list of outrages, with the astounding outrage of the "Indians going to a house, rolling out a barrel of whisky, and knocking it in its head!"  Terrifying rumors were circulated of border depredations committed by "General Black Hawk" and his "British Band."  The Executive of Illinois promptly ordered out seven hundred militia to meet this "invasion."

However, General Gaines ordered some ten companies to Rock Island, and with them proceeded there in June.  A conference was held with Black Hawk, the result of which was, that he refused to leave.  However, some sixteen hundred militiamen having arrived, Gen. Gaines took possession of the Sac village, and Black Hawk retreated across the river.  A treaty was then concluded, wherein Black Hawk agreed not to cross the river without permission.

Thus ended, for that year, this famous campaign - which, while being in reality but a squabble between Black Hawk's squaws, and the whites, about cornfields, and the rights of way, was magnified by Gov. Reynolds into an actual invasion.

In the Spring of 1832, Black Hawk received information from the Prophet that not only the British, but several tribes of Indians would assist him in recovering his lands.  After vainly endeavoring to persuade Keokuk to join him, he started in April from his rendezvous at Fort Madison, and ,attended by his band, with their wives and children, landed at Rock River, and proceeded to ascend it.  This was in violation of the treaty of the preceding year.  He was ordered by Gen. Atkinson - then stationed at Fort Armstrong - to return; but he refused on the grounds of his mission being a peaceful one, as he was proceeding to a Winnebago village further up the river, there, by their invitation, to raise corn.

After reaching the Winnebago village, Black Hawk ascertained that the tribe would not assist him, although willing that he should plant corn.  He then determined to return along the Rock River, and recross the Mississippi, as he had by this time learned that all the promised assistance from other tribes had failed.  Before returning, he determined to give a feast in honor of some Pottowatomies then visiting him.

In the meantime, Gen. Atkinson, with six hundred troops, had ascended Rock River in pursuit of Black Hawk, and at this time had arrived at Dixon's ferry, a point about half way from the Mississippi to Black Hawk's camp.  There, Maj. Stillman, with some three hundred volunteers, proceeded forward on a scouting expedition.  He proceeded up to Sycamore Creek, which was within a few miles of Black Hawk.

The latter hearing that troops had been seen near him, immediately sent three young men with a flag of truce, to conduct them to his camp, for the purpose of a conference.  These, upon approaching the troops, were taken prisoners, and one of them shot!  Five others were dispatched by the wary old chief to mark the result.  These had not proceeded far before they saw the troops coming toward them at full gallop.  Two of them were overtaken and killed, the other three reached the camp, and gave the alarm.  All of Black Hawk's men were then absent, but about fifty.  These immediately charged upon the advancing troops, and completely routed the valorous three hundred!  The retreat did not stop on reaching their camp, but many not even deeming Gen. Atkinson's flag a sufficient defense, kept on fifty miles farther, to their own homes!


This was the famous "battle" of "Stillman's Run," and it, perhaps, conferred a more lasting notoriety upon those engaged in it, than would have the hardest fought battle.  The whole proceeding - from the firing upon the flag-bearers at the beginning, to their "turning tail" to the Indians at the end - is the most cowardly affair on record.  There is not a doubt but if the flag had been respected, and a conference held, that Black Hawk would have peaceably returned to the west side of the Mississippi.

A bloody frontier war ensued.  The "British Band" divided in squads, and attacked and butchered wherever they could find an opportunity.  One thousand more troops were ordered out, and Gen. Scott proceeded towards the scene of action with about the same number, having been despatched by the Secretary of War.  The Indians were gradually driven north, and, as they reached the Wisconsin river, they were defeated, with a bloody loss, by Gen. Dodge, the former losing some forty of their braves, the latter but one.  This decisive blow ended, in reality, the war.  The women and children escaping down the Wisconsin on rafts, starved, or were shot by troops stationed along the river, with but a miserably small exception.

Black Hawk, and his remaining party, attempted to reach the Mississippi by taking a direct line across the country, toward a point some forty miles above the mouth of the Wisconsin.  After losing many by starvation, the flying band reached the river, and made preparations for crossing it - but the steamboat Warrior gave them another check.  Regardless of a white flag, exhibited by them, the Captain let fly a six-pounder among them, and, to use his own elegant language, "if you ever saw straight blankets you saw them there!"*  The next morning, the whole of Gen. Atkinson's army arrived in pursuit of the Indians, and immediately attacked them.  This "battle" was simply a massacre - the sharp-shooters amusing themselves by picking off the women and children, who were endeavoring to cross the river.  The most who escaped by crossing the river passed from Scyllad to Charybis - for they were attacked by a party of Sioux, and were either killed or taken prisoners.  The "battle" of Bad Axe was simply a victory of overpowering numbers over a starved remnant of a brave tribe, and an indiscriminate massacre of men, women and children.  From the unjustifiable act of the Warrior in firing upon a flag of truce to the shooting of innocent women and harmless children, there is not much to admire.

*See B, end of Chapter III.

Black Hawk escaped, but was taken by a couple of treacherous Winnebagoes, and delivered, along with the Prophet, to General Street, August 27th, at Prairie du Chien.  He was sent in a few days to Rock Island, where, on the 21st September, a new treaty was concluded between the Whites and Indians.  In consequence of cholera in the Fort, the treaty was held on the Wisconsin side - on the spot of ground now occupied by the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad buildings.

It was at this treaty that Keokuk made a reserve of a section of land which was made over to the wife of Antoine Le Claire, on a single condition that the latter should build his house upon the spot of ground occupied by the marquee of Gen. Scott during the treaty.  The result of the treaty was, that the United States required from the Sacs and Foxes six millions of acres lying west of the Mississippi, which acquisition was known as the "Black Hawk Purchase," and subsequently as the "Iowa District."   A reserve of forty miles square, known as "Keokuk's Reserve," was made in favor of that Chief on Iowa River.

This land was purchased for twenty thousand dollars per annum for thirty years - the payment of the debts of the tribe, and the support of a black and gun smith among them.

This ends the brief notice of prominent events in the life of Black Hawk, and the celebrated "Black Hawk War" - than which latter there is scarcely a more farcical "war" on record.  Begining in the aggressions of the whites, and lack of forbearance afterward with the less refined Indians - with bombast and cowardice, and vilation of scared pledges interspersing its sparse details of nobleness, charity and bravery, it is not one which can or should refect particular credit upon the part of the Whites.  But let it pass - every year's inquiries are revealing these facts - and posterity will yet pass a righteous verdict upon its character.

When Black Hawk passed down the river, during a visit to Rock Island in the Spring of '33, we are informed by Lieut. Mitchell that, as he passed along below Rock Island, he "cried like a child," as his eye looked upon the site of his old village.  There is something peculiarly affecting in this incident, and it reveals no little of the Beautiful in the heart of the SAVAGE.  He was in his sixty-fifth year - an old man.  There were the rolling prairies of his beautiful village - the theatre of the great exploits of his whole life, which he was never to visit again.  Expatriated, conquered, thrust down from his high position, and ignominiously treated, with the sight of boyhood and manhood's home in the possession of the stranger-enemy, and with the prospect of a distant removal in his old age, from all that he valued - why should not the aged chief weep?  He died - and among all the famous events of "General Black Hawk's" history - among all his brave exploits, and magnanimous deeds, there is not one so lustrous as the aged man weeping as he passed his old home, and the graves of his kindred.

Let Posterity do him at least the justice to own that there was in his acts a single one of poetic beauty, which is paralleled only in acts giving birth to "Thoughts that breathe, and words that burn."


A.  Indian Customs. - In closing these chapters, it may not be inappropriate to give a few of the customs, beliefs, &c., of the Sac and Fox tirbes:

MARRIAGE. - Our women plant the corn, and as soon as they get done, we make a feast, and dance the crane dance, in which they join us, dressed in their best, and decorated with feathers.  At this feast our young braves select the young woman they wish to have for a wife.  He then informs his mother, who calls on the mother of the girl, when the arrangement is made, and the time appointed for him to come.  He goes to the lodge when all are asleep, (or pretend to be,) lights his matches, which have been provided for the purpose, and soon finds where his intended sleeps.  He then awakens her, and holds the light to his face, that she may know him - after which he places the light close to her.  If she blows it out, the ceremony is ended, and he appears in the lodge the next morning as one of the family.  If she does not blow out the light, but leaves it to burn out, he retires from the lodge.  The next day he places himself in full view of it, and plays his flute.  The young women go out, one by one, to see who he is playing for.  The tune changes, to let them know that he is not playing for them.  When his intended makes her appearance at the door, he continues his courting tune, until she returns to the lodge.  He then gives over playing, and makes another trial at night, which generally turns out favorable.  During the first year they ascertain whether they can agree with each other, and can be happy - if not, they part, and each looks out again.  If we were to live together, and disagree, we should be as foolish as the whites.  No indiscretion can banish a woman from her parental lodge - no difference how many children she may bring home, she is always welcome - the kettle is over the fire to feed them.

DANCES. - The crane dance often lasts two or three days.  When this is over, we feast again, and have our national dance.  The large square in the village is swept and prepared for the purpose.  The chiefs and old warriors, take seats on mats, which have been spread at the upper end of the square - the drummers and singers come next, and the braves and women form the sides, leaving a large space in the middle.  The drums beat, and the singers commence.  A warrior enters the square, keeping time with the music.  He shows the manner he started on a war party - how he approached the enemy - he strikes, and describes the way he killed him.  All join in applause.  He then leaves the square, and another enters and takes his place.  Such of our young men as have not been out in war parties, and killed an enemy, stand back ashamed - not being able to enter the square.  I remember that I was ashamed to look where our young women stood, before I could take my stand in the square as a warrior.

What pleasure it is to an old warrior, to see his son come forward and relate his exploits - it makes him feel young, and induces him to enter the square, and "fight his battles o'er again."

This national dance makes our warriors.  When I was traveling last summer, on a steam boat, on a large river, going from New York to Albany, I was shown the place where the Americans dance their national dance {West Point}; where the old warriors recount to their young men, what they have done, to stimulate them to go and do likewise.  This surprised me, as I did not think the whites understood our way of making braves.

LABORS, WARS, FEASTS, &c. - When our national dance is over - our corn-fields hoed, and every wed dug up, and our corn about knee high, all our young  men would start in a direction towards sun-down, to hunt deer and buffalo - being prepared, also, to kill Sioux, if any are found on our hunting grounds - a part of our old men and women to the lead mines to make lead - and the remainder of our people start to fish, and get mat stuff.  Every one leaves the village, and remains about forty days.  They then return:  the hunting party bringing in dried buffalo and deer meat, and sometimes Sioux scalps, when they are found trespassing on our hunting grounds.  At other times they are met by a party of Sioux too strong for them, and are driven in.  If the Sioux have killed the Sacks last, they expect to be retaliated upon, and will fly before them, and vice versa.  Each party knows that the other has a right to retaliate, which induces those who have killed last, to give way before their enemy - as neither wish to strike, except to avenge the death of their relatives.  All our wars are predicated by the relatives.  All our wars are predicated by the relatives of those killed; or by aggressions upon our hunting grounds.

The party from the lead mines bring lead, and the others dried fish, and mats for our winter lodges.  Presents are now made by each party; the first, giving to the others dried buffalo and deer, and they, in exchange, presenting them with lead, dried fish and mats.  This is a happy season of the year - having plenty of provisions, such as beans, squashes, and other produce, with our dried meat and fish, we continue to make feasts and visit each other, until our corn is ripe.  Some lodge in the village makes a feast daily to the Great Spirit.  I cannot explain this so that the white people would comprehend me, as we have no regular standard among us.  Every one makes his feast as he thinks best, to please the Great Spirit, who has the care of all beings created.  Others believe in two Spirits:  one good and one bad, and make feasts for the Bad Spirit, to keep him quiet!  If they can make peace with him, the Good Spirit will not hurt them!  For my part, I am of opinion, that so far as we have reason, we have a right to use it, in determining what is right or wrong; and should pursue that path which we believe to be right - believing, that "whatever is, is right."  If the Great and Good Spirit wished us to believe and do as the whites,he could easily change our opinions, so that we would see, and think, and act as they do.  We are nothing compared to His power, and we feel and know it.  We have men among us, like the whites, who pretend to know the right path, but will not consent to show it without pay!  I have no faith in their paths - but believe that every man must make his own path!

ORIGIN OF CORN.-I will here relate the manner in which corn first came.  According to tradition, handed down to our people, a beautiful woman was seen to descend from the clouds, and alight upon the earth, by two of our ancestors, who had killed a deer, and were sitting by a fire, roasting apart of it to eat.  They were astonished at seeing her, and concluded that she must be hungry, and had smelt the meat-and immediately went to her, taking with them a piece of the roasted vension.  They presented it to her, and she eat-and told them to return to the spot where she was sitting, at the end of one year, and they would find a reward for their kindness and generosity.  She then ascended to the clouds, and disappeared.  The two men returned to their village, and explained to the nation what they had seen, done, and heard-but were laughed at by their people.  When the period arrived, for them to visit this consecrated ground, where they were to find a reward for their attention to the beautiful woman of the clouds, they went with a large party, and found, where her right hand had rested on the ground, corn growning-and where the left hand had rested, beans-and immediately where she had been seated, tobacco.

The two first have, ever since, been cultivated by our people, as our principal provisions-and the last used for smoking.  The white people have since found out the latter, and seems to relish it as mich as we do-as they use it in different ways, viz:  smoking, snuffing and eating!

SPORTS, &c.-We thank the Great Spirit for all the benefits he has conferred upon us.  For myself, I never take a drink of water from a spring, without being mindful of his goodness.

We next have our great ball play-from three to five hundred on a side, play this game.  We play for horses, guns, blankets, or any other kind of property we have.  The successful party take the stakes, and all retire to our lodges in peace and friendship.

We next commence horse-racing, and continue our sport and feasting, until the corn is all secured.  We then prepare to leave our village for our hunting grounds.  The traders arrive, and give us credit for such articles as we want to clothe our families, and enabel us to hunt.  We first, however, hold a council with them, to ascertain the price they will give us for our skins, and what they will charge us for goods.  We inform them where we intend hunting-and tell them where to build their houses.  At this place, we deposit part of our corn, and leave our old people.  The traders have always been kind to them, and relieved them when in want.  They were always much respected by our people-and never since we have been a nation, has one of them been killed by any of our people.

We disperse, in small parties, to make our hunt, and as soon as it is over, we return to our traders' estabishment, with our skins, and remain feasting, playing cards, and other pastimes, until near the close of the winter.  Our young men then start on the beaver hunt; others to hunt raccoons and muskrats-and the remainder of our people go to the sugar camps to make sugar.  All leave our encampment, and appoint a place to meet on the Mississippi, so that we may return to our village together, in the spring.  We always spent our time pleasantly at the sugar camp.  It being the season for wild fowl, we lived well, and always had plenty, when the hunters came in, that we might make a feast for them.  After this is over, we return to our village, accompanied, sometimes, by our traders.  In this way, the year rolled round happily.  But these are times that were!


B. -  Myself and band having no means to descend the Ouisconsin, I started, over a rugged country, to go to the Mississippi, intending to cross it, and return to my nation.  Many of our people were compelled to go on foot, for want of horses, which, in consequence of their having had nothing to eat for a long time, caused our march to be very slow.  At length we arrived at the Mississippi, having lost some of our old men and little children, who perished on the way with hunger.

We had been here but a little while, before we saw a steam boat (the "Warrior,") coming.  I told my braves not to shoot, as I intended going on board, so that we might save our women and children.  I knew the captain, (THROCKMORTON,) and was determined to give myself up to him.  I then sent for my white flag.  While the messenger was gone, I took a small piece of white cotton, and put it on a pole, and called to the captain of the boat, and told him to send his little canoe ashore, and let me come on board.  The people on the boat asked whether we were Sacs or Winnebagoes.  I told a Winnebago to tell them that we were Sacs, and wanted to give ourselves up!  A Winnebago on the boat called to us "run and hide, that the whites were going to shoot!"  About this time one of my braves had jumped into the river, bearing a white flag to the boat - when another sprang in after him, and brought him to shore.  The firing then commenced from the boat, which was returned by my braves, and continued for some time.  Very few of my people were hurt after the first fire, having succeeded in getting behind old logs  and trees, which shielded them from the enemy's fire.

The Winnebago, on the steam boat, must either have misunderstood what was told, or did not tell it to the captain correctly; because I am confident that he would not have fired upon us, if he had known my wishes.  I have always considered him a good man, and too great a brave to fire upon an enemy when sueing for quarters.

After the boat left us, I told my people to cross, if they could, and wished: that I intended going into the Chippewa country.  Some commenced crossing, and such as had determined to follow them, remained - only three lodges going with me.  Next morning, at daybreak, a young man overtook me, and said that all my party had determined to cross the Mississippi - that a number had already got over safe, and that he had heard the white army last night, within a few miles of them.  I now began to fear that the whites would come up with my people, and kill them, before they could get across.  I had determined to go and join the Chippewas; but reflecting that by this I could only save myself, I concluded to return, and die with my people, If the Great Spirit would not give us another victory!  During our stay in the thicket, a party of whites came close by us, but passed without discovering us!

Early in the morning a party of whites, being in advance of the army, caome upon our people,  who were attempting to cross the Mississippi.  They tried to give themselves up - the whites paid no attention to their entreaties - but commenced slaughtering them!  In a little while the whole army arrived.  Our braves, but a few in number, finding that the enemy paid no regard to age or sex, and seeing that they were mudering helpless women and little children, determined to fight until they were killed!  As many women as could, commenced swimming the Mississippi, with their children on their backs.  A number of them were drowned, and some shot, before they could reach the opposite shore.

One of my braves, who gave me this information, piled up some saddles before him, (when the fight commenced,) to shield himself from the enemy's fire, and killed three white men!  But seeing that the whites were coming too close to him, he crawled to the bank of the river, without being perceived, and hid himself under it, until the enemy retired.  He then came to me, and told me what had been done.  After hearing this sorrowful news.  I started, with my little party, to the Winnebago village at Prarie La Cross.  On my arrival there, I entered the lodge of one of the chiefs, and told him that I wished him to go with me to his father - that I intended to give myself up to the American war chief, and die, if the Great Spirit saw proper!  He said he would go with me.  I then took my medicine bag, and addressed the chief.  I told him that it was "the soul of the Sac nation - that it never had been dishonored in any battle - take it, it is my life - dearer than life - and give it to the American chief!"  He said he would keep it, and take care of it, and if I was suffered to live, he would send it to me.

During my stay at the village, the squaws made me a white dress of deer skin.  I then started, with several Winnebagoes, and went to their agent, at Prarie du Chien, and gave myself up.

On my arrival there, I found to my sorrow that a large body of Sioux had pursued, and killed a number of our women and children, who had got safely across the Mississippi.  The whites ought not to have permitted such conduct - and none but cowards would ever have been guilty of such cruelty - which has always been practiced on our nation by the Sioux.

The massacre, which terminated the war, lasted about two hours.  Our loss in killed, was about sixty, besides a number that were drowned.  The loss of enemy could not be ascertained by my braves, exactly; but they think that they killed about sixteen, during the action.

We are indebted for the above details to the life of Black Hawk, dictated by himself. - Ed