DAVENPORT PAST AND PRESENT
COL. GEO. DAVENPORT,
ONE OF THE ORIGINAL PROPRIETORS OF DAVENPORT, AND AFTER WHOM THE CITY WAS NAMED.
NOTE: A picture of Col Davenport can be viewed by going to the Scott County Main Page and clicking on Pictures and Documents.
GEORGE DAVENPORT was born in the year 1783, in Lincolnshire, England, and, at the age of seventeen years, was placed with an Uncle (master of a Merchant ship) to learn the seafaring business. During the next three years, he visited many seaports on the Baltic, and of France, Spain, and Portugal. In the fall of 1803, the ship sailed with a cargo from Liverpool for St. Petersburgh, and shortly after its arrival an embargo was laid upon all the English vessels in that port - the vessels taken possession of, and their crews thrown into prison by the Russian Government. The crew of Mr. Davenport's vessel were confined in an old stone church, where they remained during a long and dreary winter, suffering very much from cold and hunger. In the Spring they were released, and their vessel restored to them. After returning home, their next voyage was from Liverpool to New York, with a cargo of goods - this was in the summer of 1804. They arrived safely at their destination, and had discharged their load, and taken in a cargo for Liverpool, and were on the eve of sailing, when an accident took place, which changed the whole course of his life. Every thing was in readiness for sailing, they had commenced to heave up the anchor, when one of the sailors was knocked overboard. Standing near the stern, at the side of the vessel, Mr. D. saw the accient, and immediately jumped into a small boat, and caught the sailor by the hair as he was going down the last time - drawing him up, and holding him until they came to his assistance. In jumping into the boat, he struck one of the seats, and fractured his leg very badly; and there being no surgeon on board, the captain had him taken to the city, and place in the hospital, with directions for every possible care to be taken of him. After remaining there some two months, he was advised to go into the country to recruit his health. Acting upon this advice, he went to New Jersey, and stopped at the pleasant village of Rahway, where he remained some time, and then went to Carisle, Pennsylvania. While here, he became acquainted with a young officer, Lieut. Lawrence, who was recruiting for the army. Taking quite a liking for him, he proposed, that if he would enlist he would get him the appointment of Sergeant, which proposition was accepted, and he received the appointment of Sergeant in Capt. McLeary's Company of the First Regiment of Infantry. He then went to Harrisburg on a recruiting expeditions, and remained until they had enlisted the number of men required, after which they returned to Carlisle Barracks, and remained until the spring of 1806, occupied in drilling, and leaning all the arts of war.
They then recieved orders to join the army at New Orleans, under the command of Gen. Wikinson. They walked across the mountains to Pittsburgh, and there they procured boats, and rowed down the river to New Orleans.
On their arrival at that city, they were kept constantly at work repairing and building new fortifications, and putting the place in a state of defence. During that Summer, the soldiers suffered very much from sickness. In the fall, the troops received orders to march to Sabine River, against the Spaniards; which expedition has since been known as the "Sabine Expedition." The troops were placed in keel boats, and worked their way up the Mississippi and Red River, suffering every kind of hardship and fatigue, hot weather, bad water, and any quantity of musquitoes could afford, before they arrived at Nachetochez. During this trip, Mr. D. steered one of the boats, and came very near being drowned. In consequence of the boats sheering and swinging around, the steering oar knocked him into the river, but fortunately, as he came up, he seized hold of the blade of the oar, and held on until he was rescued. After remaining here a short time, he was sent by Gen. Wilkinson with dispatches to "Fort Adams," on the Mississippi. He took one man with him, got his provisions into a canoe, and started down Red River. When they had reached the great bend, they met with an accident, that came near losing them their lives. The canoe struck a snag, and upset them in the river, but by clinging to the drift wood, they made out to reach the shore, making a narrow escape with their lives. Losing their canoe, and all of their provisions, they were now obliged to strike across the country to the Mississippi, traveling over swamps, bayous, sloughs, having frequently to get logs together, and make rafts to cross on.
During this travel, they were nearly eaten up by musquitoes. At night they would build a fire, and make a dense smoke, to keep them off. While one of them would sleep, the other would watch, keep up the fire, and looking out for "Alligators." They were several days in reaching "Fort Adams," and were nearly worn out, living only upon what berries and wild fruit they could find.
Peace being made with the Spaniards, Gen. Wilkinson returned with the troops to New Orleans, and as soon as they arrived, they commenced to put the place in a state of defence against the "Burr Expedition," which was on its way down the river. There was great excitement in the city. The military were kept constantly on duty, and in a short time the city was declared under Marial Law. During this time, Mr. D. was on duty as "Orderly" to Gen. Wilkinson. About the middle of December, 1806, he was sent with a guard to arrest Dr. Errick Bollman, which was effected about twelve o'clock at night. They surrounded the house, posting sentinels around it to prevent any possible escape. When they knocked at the door, a person came and opened it, and enquired what they wanted. They replied "Dr. Bollman." The person stated the Doctor was not there. They, however, entered, searched the house, and found the Doctor in his room, dressing himself, when they arrested him for "Treason," taking him down to the Fort for safe keeping.
During the stay of the troops in New Orleans, they suffered dreadfully from sickness, not being accustomed to the climate. It frequently became Mr. D.'s turn to take charge of the men detailed to bury the dead. This was a dreadful duty. The graves could not be sunk more than three feet, owing to the water being so near the surface, while the men had to bail out the water as they dug the graves; and when the coffin was put in, they had to hold it down with their spades until the grave could be filled up with earth to keep the coffin from floating. The sun's scorching heat, and the intolerable stench from the shallow graves, made this the hardest duty that was possible for any one to perform, and a great many lost their lives from the effects of it. After the arrest of "Burr," and his associates, and every thing had quieted down, most of the troops were sent to Natchez, Fort Adams, and other more healthy places.
In the Spring of 1807, Mr. D. was sent with a party of troops to the Homichita River, in the Choctaw Country, where they built a Block House, and remained there until Fall, when they returned to Natchez. Mr. D. then received orders to go on a recruiting expedition to fill the regiment, which was nearly decimated by losses from sickness. He sailed from New Orleans to Philadelphia, where he enlisted quite a number of men; going from there to Baltimore, and thence to Winchester, Virginia, 1809. Here he remained until the Spring of 1810, when he was ordered West to join his regiment. They walked over the mountains to Pittsburgh. Here they procured keel boats, and proceeded down the Ohio, then up the Mississippi and Missouri to the Barracks, at Bellefontaine. He remained here until the Summer of 1812, when he went with Capt. Owens' Company in boats, up the Mississippi, to an Island just below the mouth of the Illinois. Here they built temporary fortifications, and remained until Fall, to protect St. Louis and the settlements from being attacked by the Indians.
About this time, Gen. Howard organized an expedition to go against the Indians on the Illinois river, at Peoria Lake, where the Pottawotamies had several villages. The regular troops were ordered to proceed by water to Peoria, while the rangers and volunteers proceeded across the country. They got their keel boats in readiness, and had the "Cargo Boxes" double planked, so as to make them ball proof - made loop and port holes for musketry and light pieces of cannon. They arrived at the foot of Peoria Lake without seeing any Indians - landed their men, and commenced to build a Block House on the top of a high bank, which overlooked the prarie for some distance. After finishing this, they sunk a well to supply it with water. Having arranged things so as to draw up the water with a sweep, it was necessary to have a grape vine to attach to the pole. Mr. D. having noticed some grape vines in the woods a short distance from the Block House, took a man with him to get one, and soon found the article in question. They cut it, and were trimming it, when an unusual sound attracted their attention. They became alarmed, and started for the Fort, and when they reached the edge of the timber he climbed a tree to reconnoiter the prarie in the direction of the Block House, and to his horror he beheld the prarie swarming with Indians, moving toward the Block House. He descended as fast as possible, and told his companion that their only chance of escape was by getting under the bank, and running for their lives along the shore of the lake, endeavoring thus to reach the Block House before the Indians discovered them. They started, but were not half way to the Fort before the battle commenced. The firing from the Block House, and the yells of the Indians on the prarie above them, increased their speed "considerable," and they made, perhaps, the fastest time ever known. When they approached near the Block House, they found it was impossible to reach it, as the Indians were nearer than they were, and their only chance now was to get to the gun boats at the lake. When they were about half way to the boats, the Indians discovered them, and commeced firing at them, and, yelling like a pack of devils, made towards the boats. This alarmed the men on board, who commenced to push out into the lake, but, fortunately, one of the boats grounded on a sand bar, which accident saved Mr. D. and his companion. They rushed into the water, and, wading to the boat, put their shoulders on the bow, and pushed it into deep water. During all this time the Indians were firing at them, and the balls kept whizing by, making it anything but comfortable. They soon got on board, and under cover. Mr. D. determined on revenge, and pointing out one of the small cannon, he took good aim at the red skins, and applied the match. The gun missed fire. While hunting for a primer, some one elevated the piece too high. When he applied the match, the piece went off with a tremendous explosion, so much so that he thought the whole boat was blown up. The muzzle of the gun had been elevated above the edge of the port hole, and when it went off, the whole load struck the side of the boat. By this time the brisk fire kept up from the Block House and boats, obliged the Indians to retreat.
Nothing of any importance occured until about the first of December, when a large party of Pottawottamies arrived with a "white flag," and sent in three of their Chiefs to the Fort, and proposed to meet the Commanding officer in Council. This was agreed to, and arrangements were made for the meeting a certain number of Chiefs and Braves in Council. A place and time were agreed upon, and when the time arrived, about forty of the principle Chiefs and Braves approached the place, dressed in their full Indian costume, headed by their principle Chief, the old Black Partidge. They were met by the Commanding officer, and all the officers of the post. After shaking hands, and passing around the Peace Pipe, the old Chief explained his business. The wished to be friends with the Americans, to stop war, and make a treaty of peace with him. The Commanding officer complimented them for the decision, and promised to send their talk to the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Gen. Clark, at St. Louis, as he had no orders or authority to treat with them. He proposed that they should send a delegation of their Chiefs and Warriors to St. Louis, and he agreed to send some of his soldiers with them, to see them safe through the white settlements. This was agreed to. So they selected thirteen of their principle men, and one woman. The commander ordered Mr. Davenport to select four trusty men, and take charge of the Indians, and escort them to St. Louis. This was rather an unpleasant duty for five men to start out with a lot of hostile Indians, but it had to be done - there was nothing to be done but to obey orders, and accordingly he got a sufficient supply of provisions, and placed them aboard of a Perogue, and embarking his party, started down the Illinois river. The principle Chiefs were Gomo, Senatchwine, Shiggashack, Comas, and Black Partridge. They traveled but one day, when the river froze up, obliging them to abandon their boat, and travel by land. Each took a small quantity of provisions, the remainder was rolled up, and placed in a hollow tree. With the provisions, they also had a small keg of whisky, and after giving each one of the party a dram, it was proposed to hide it with the provisions, so that the Indians could have it on their return, but the old Black Partridge insisted they should drink it all then. Mr. D. told him he could not do so. He then directed them to move on, and his men to follow in the rear, while he remained to put away the keg of liquor. After they were out of sight, he took the keg and concealed it in a different place from that mentioned to the Indians, having become alarmed at their conduct, and being afraid they would return, and take the liquor, and get drunk. In that case, they were sure to have trouble, and, perhaps, lose their lives. He soon overtook the company, but all day the Old Black Partridge was very moody and discontented. At night they encamped on a point of the river; and he managed to place the Indians on the point, and his own camp behind them, so they could not go back without his knowing it. Each had a guard to watch the other. They traveled, in this cautious manner, two or three days, when they discovered smoke across the prarie, which alarmed the Indians. They stated that there was a large war party of Sacs out, and thought from the smoke it must be them, and if they saw them they would be killed, they could not be saved from these formidable braves. This was not very comfortable news, but they avoided the danger by avoiding the prarie, and following the timber, and making no fire at night. They traveled on for a number of days, and when they began to approach the Mississippi a new danger began to threaten the imagination of the Indians. The Rangers were ordered to scour the country as far up as the mouth of the Illinois, and there was great danger of falling in with them, and their firing on them before the Rangers discovered that there were any whites with them. When camping at night, the whites hung their hats and coats upon poles, so that in case of an approach of the Rangers, the Indians would not be fired upon.
In this way they traveled, and, after suffering very much from the inclemency of the weather, and from hunger, they arrived at St. Louis, and were very well received, and were soon called to the Council Chamber, and a treaty concluded with the Indians, who left five of their number as hostages for its fulfilment.
Gov. Clark enquired of Mr. Davenport "how it had been possible for him, and his party, to reach the white settlements without being seen by the Rangers, who were ordered to guard the frontiers from a surprise by the Indians?" Mr. Davenport replied, " that he had not seen any thing of the Rangers, nor any signs of their ever having been to the mouth of the Illinois." Some of the officers of the Rangers were present, and overheard the conversation, and when they left, they swore they would show Mr. Davenport's party whether there were rangers on the look out or not.
Gov. Clark supplied the Chiefs with presents and provisions, and directed Mr. Davenport to take the party up the river in Perogue; and land them at the mouth of the Illinois river, on the north side, so that they might return home in safety. After getting every thing in order, they started on their return. They were obliged to keep on the Missouri side all the way up, for fear of the Rangers firing on them, as they were very angry at the statements that had been made by Mr.Davenport, and had sworn vengence against him and his party on their return. They, however, reached home in safety.
Mr. Davenport returned to Bellefontaine, and remained there until the Spring of 1814, when the first regiment was ordered to join Gen. Brown on the Canada line. They shipped on keel boats, and went down the Mississippi, and up the Ohio to Pittsburgh. They then crossed over the mountains by forced marches, until they arrived at the town of Erie. They immediately embarked on two vessels, and sailed to Fort Erie, where they were ordered to be reviewed. They put themselves in as good order as possible, paraded, and received orders at once to march to Lundy's Lane, and arrived in time to be in the hottest part of the battle. This was very hard service, as they had just performed a long and fatiguing journey without an hour's rest. But the army was hard pressed, and had need of every man that could be brought into action during the battle. Mr. Davenport had to assist in taking one of the officers, who was severely wounded, from the field, and laid his musket down to perform the service, and when he returned it was gone. He soon found one by the side of a British soldier, which he took, and found to be one of the "Glengarian Muskets," a very excellent exchange for the one he had lost, (this old relic is still kept in the family, in memory of the war.) Mr. Davenport was in many very perilous situations during this service time, often being placed on piquet-guard duty, and during the seige of "Fort Erie," he was on duty at one of the batteries night and day, with scarcely a moment's rest. He was also on duty at Black Rock, in charge of a battery, a part of the time. At the time of the "sortie," he was one of the attacking party which drove the British from their works. After the seige was over, the troops crossed back again into Buffalo, and the First regiment marched to Pittsburgh, and then by boats to Bellafontaine. After being there a short time, his term of service expired, and he got an honorable discharge, having given his adopted country ten years of very active duty, adn of the very best part of his life. At this time, he was employed by Col. Wm. Morrison, of Kentucky, Government Contractor, as his agent to supply the troops with provisions - the Commissary Department being at that time under the management of the Contractors. He now came to St. Louis,and took charge of several keel boats, loaded with the necessary provisions. A large drove of cattle were also purchased, and driven through the country. They started up the river, and arrived at the mouth of the Des Moines River late in the Fall, and concluded to stop there for the Winter; and built a number of log huts for the men, and for storing the provisions. It being so late, it was difficult to build huts in sufficient numbers. The best he could do, was to put poles into the ground, and nail up green hides for siding and roofing, and when they got dry, they made a tolerably warm house. This Post was called "Cantonment Davis." The next year, "Fort Edwards" was built here.
In the Spring of 1816, the Eighth Regiment, and a Company of Riflemen, under the command of Col. Lawrence, (the very same officer and friend with whom Mr. Davenport had enlisted ten years before,) emarked on boats, and started up the river. They arrived at the mouth of Rock River, and examined the country for a site for a Fort, and the result was the selecting of the lower end of Rock Island as the most suitable point. They landed on Rock Island on the tenth of May, 1816. As soon as they had completed their encampment, he employed the soldiers to cut logs, and built store houses for the provisions, and had a bake house and oven put up. This was the first building ever erected on this Island. The soldiers now set to work to build the Fort, which was named "Fort Armstrong." At this time, there lived a large body of Indians in the vicinity, numbering some ten thousand, divided in three villages, one of the East side of the River, near the foot of the Island, called, "Waupellow Village," and about three miles South, on the bank of Rock River, stood the famous village of "Black Hawk," and on the West side of the River stood a small village named after an old Brave, "Oskosh." Upon the first arrival of the troops on the Island, the Indians were very much dissatisfied, but the officers took great pains to gain their friendship by making them many presents, and they soon became reconciled, and were most excellent neighbors. During the first Summer they would frequently bring over supplies of sweet corn, beans, pumpkins, and such other vegetables as they raised, and present them to Mr. Davenport, and the officers, with the remark, that they had raised none, and that they themselves had plenty, invariably refusing to take any pay.
During the first Summer an incident occurred, which gave Mr. Davenport an Indian name. Some of his cattle having strayed off the Island, he took some men, and went over to look for them, in the bottom, at the mouth of the Rock River, but not finding them, they were returning along the bank of the river, in front of the Indian village. When opposite some of the lodges, a party of drunken Indians came rushing out towards them - his men took to their heels, but he stood his ground; some dozen of the drunken Indians seized him by the arms, legs, and coat-tail, while another drunken fellow held a large black bottle in his hand, and would stagger up and try to hit him on the head with it, which blow would require all his strength to dodge. This manoeuver was repeated a number of times, until he was nearly exhausted, and had about made up his mind that the "cursed Indian" would break his head with the bottle, when an old Indian, a friend of his, happened to see what was going on, when he cried out "Saganosh, Saganosh!" (he is an Englishman."). These words operated like magic - they loosed holds, and commenced to shake him by the hands, and endeavored to be the cleaverest fellows in the world. He was ever afterward known, by the different tribes, as "Saganosh." At this time he resided near the Fort, and continued to supply the troops with provisions, but in the second year, he built a double log cabin and store-house adjoining about a half mile from the Fort and where the present residence is. He now, with what little money he had saved, purchased a small stock of Indian goods, and commenced the "Indian Trader." At this time there was a large tribe of Winnebagoes, or, as the French called them, Peons, that inhabited Rock River country and the Winnebago Swamps. This tribe had a very bad name, and were always very hostile and trecherous, and they had been in the habit,for several years before, when a trader came among them with goods, to kill him, and take the goods, as the easiest way of making a short bargain, so that the French traders had been afraid, for some time, to go among them. Mr. Davenport, not knowing much about the Indians at this time, and hearing that they had large quantities of furs, and that no traders had visited them for some time, concluded that tis would be the best place for him to trade in. As soon as the French Traders, (most of whom were in the employ of the American Fur Company,) heard of it, they advised him not to attempt it, as he would be killed and robbed, but he determined to try it, and fitted out five or six pack-horses, loaded them with goods, and taking two Canadians, Gokey and Degree, with him, started up Rock River. They soon reached the Winnebago encampment. he immediately got the Chiefs and principle men together, and made them a "talk." He told them he had heard that they were in want of many kind of goods, and that they had plenty of furs, so he had come up to trade with them, but that before he had started he had been told that they were a very bad people, and was advised not to go among them, but he did not believe these stories, and that he had come among them to see for himself. the Chiefs shook him by the hand, and expressed great satisfaction at the confidence he had in them, and assured him if he would trade with them, he should never have cause to complain. They then sent a cryer through the different encampments, to announce the arrival of a trader, and that they must treat him well. He now unpacked his horses, and placed his goods in one of the lodges, which was offered him. He commenced to trade, and soon sold all his goods, and had received the best kind of Furs in payment, and at very good profits. He now loaded up his horses, and started back with Gokey, leaving Degree in charge of part of the Furs, while he returned to get another supply of goods. He now visited all the different encampments, and met with very good treatment - his trade soon increased so largely that he established several trading posts on Rock River, and maintained them for many years, making a very profitable business.
At this early time, most of the Indian goods were brought from "Mackinac" through Green Bay, then up the Fox River to the "Portage," there packed across to the Wisconsin River, then down the Mississippi in "Mackinaw Boats." He once sent an order to Mackinaw for an assortment of Indian goods, camping equipage, four hands, and a Mackinaw boat, and everything complete, was delivered to them at Rock Island.
His employees were Canadians, hired for three years, at one hundred and twenty-five dollars per year, and were very faithful hands. Shortly after he had commenced trading up Rock River he made a very narrow escape. About this time several war parties had gone to attack the settlements, one of which had been unfortunate, and had lost some of their men, so that, on their return, the relations of those that were killed felt very hostile, and determined to be revenged at the first opportunity. Not knowing anything of this state of things, Mr. Davenport packed up some goods on four or five horses, taking Gokey with him, and started up Rock River. They arrived at Prophets Town, and went immediately to their old friend, "Wetaico's Lodge." The old man met them, but seemed much alarmed. He shook them by the hand, and said he was very sorry they had come at this time; he was afraid they would be killed, as there was a war party just about to start from the upper end of the village, headed by the "Crane," who had just lost some relatives, but that he would do all he could to save them. This was said to them in the Chippewa Tongue, as that was generally used by the traders. He invited them to sit down, when the yells of an approaching party of Indians was heard. He told them to keep cool, and show no signs of alarm. In a few minutes a large crowd surrounded the lodge, whooping and yelling like so many "devils." The old man now stepped to the door of his lodge, and enquired what they wanted, (in the Winnebago language.) They replied that "they had come to kill the white men." The old man now made them a long speech, claiming the rights of hospitality, and the sacredness of his lodge. 20 He told them they were fools! Why be in so great a hurry? That they had plenty of time, as the trader was going to encamp just below the village, and would remain three or four days to trade! This seemed reasonable, and the crowd assented to it, and retired. The old man returned, and said he could save them, but they must follow strictly his council. He then directed them to go just below the village, and pitch their tent near the bank of the river-unpack their goods, turn out their horses, and make every preparation for remaining several days, and in the meantime he would place a light canoe and paddles a little way below their tent, and as soon as it was dark, to slip away form their campfire, jump into the canoe, and float down the river until they were out of hearing of the village, and then to paddle for thier lives, but to lay by in the high grass in the day time, as they might be pursued, and headed off across some of the bends of the river. They followed his advice strictly, put up their tent built a fire, and spanceled their horses, arranged their goods, and made preparations for cooking. Some few Indians came to them, and desired to trade, but they put them off until next day, on the score of fatigue. They did this to throw them off their guard. The hours seemed very long, but darkness came at last, and they stole away from their encampment, reached the canoe, and floated quietly down the river, and as soon as they were out of sight of the camp-fires they began to paddle their canoe swiftly down Rock River. Several times, during the night, they saw camp-fires ahead to them, on the bank of the river, and were obliged to drift past them on the opposite side, under the shadow of the bank. As soon as it was day-light, they landed, hauled their canoe into the tall grass, and concealed themselves during the day, and when it was dark, they started again, and paddled all night. Next morning they found themselves at the mouth of Rock River, and soon reached Rock Island.
Sometime afterwards "Old Wetaico" visited Rock Island, when he gave an account of what occurred. The next morning after the escape, he said, the whole village turned out-men, women, and children, marched down to the tent, headed by the "crane" and his war party, armed with their tomahawks, bows and arrows, and painted-singing their "war song," and beating their drums. They advanced, dancing their war dance, and surrounded the tent. But they soon found "that white man is very uncertain."
Owing to the bad feeling of this part of the tribe, he did not go among them for some time afterward. The Winnebagoes frequently came down to the Island to trade, in small parties, but they appeared very sullen and shy. They did not like to visit the Fort much. Mr. Davenport felt satisfied that if they got a good opportunity they would kill some of the whites.
In 1818, Mr. Davenport gave up the agency of supplying the troops, and turned his attention entirely to the Indian trade. He made arrangements for building him a house and store, and got the commanding officer (Col. Morgan,) to point out the place where he could build without interfering with the Forts. The place selected was the one where his late residence now stands. He put up a double log cabin, with a chimney between them. He now went to St. Louis, and purchased a supply of goods and provisions, and bought a small keel boat, ("Flying Betsey,") loaded her with them, and returned to Rock Island.
Heretofore, Mr. Davenport had confined his trade principally to the Winnebagoes, but he now commenced to trade with the Sacs and Foxes, in opposition to the "American Fur Company's" traders. During the Winter he was constantly traversing the prairies of Iowa, and visiting every encampment in person. He, in this way, selected all the best furs, while the old French traders had very little energy, and seldom left their trading post. In the Spring, he would have all his furs and skins nicely packed and prepared - feathers all sacked, bees-wax and deers tallow all barreled - then would load his boat, and go to St. Louis, and sell his cargo, which always commanded the highest market price, owing to the good condition in which everthing was put up.
It was customary, with the Sac and Fox Indians, residing in this vicinity, when they had finished planting their corn, for the young men to go on a Summer hunt for Buffalo and Deer, while the old men, and most of the women, would go up to the "lead mines" in their canoes, and dig mineral, smelt it in log furnaces, and return back again about the time their corn would be fit to eat. On these occasions he would load his keel boat with provisions, and a few goods, and go up to Fever River, (or, "Mau-cau-pi-a-sepo," or Small Pox River, as the Indians called it,) and trade with the Indians for their lead. He also visited the mines on the West side of the Mississippi, (where the Dubuque mines were,) and obtained large quantities of lead of them, which branch of the trade was very valuable.
In the Fall of 1819, Mr. Davenport, and his family, came very near being massacred by the Winnebagoes. A party of twenty of whom, headed by the "Crane," arrived about sun-down, and said they wanted to trade. He told them he never opened his store after sun-down, that they would have to wait until next day. At this, they seemed to be very much dissatisfied, but he invited them into the room occupied by his men, (adjoing the room he lived in,) and gave them plenty to eat, and pipes and tobacco, and told them they could sleep on the floor, in front of the fire. At this time, he had only two men at home, Jerome, and another trader. About bed time, Jerome came into his room, and told him he did not like the conduct of the Indians, that they did not act right, that they had laid down without taking off their moccasins, or other things, and that he was afraid to sleep in the room with them, and that they intended to do some mischief. He told Jerome to bring in the other man, and their blankets, and sleep on the floor. The two rooms were divided by a chimney, with a short passage at one side, from one room to the other with a door at each end. Jerome, and the man, came in with thier blankets and guns, and laid down on the floor, with their guns beside them. Soon after, one of the Indians came in, and said he wished to sleep on the floor, as the other room was rather crowded. He secured permission to do so. As soon as the men had laid down, Mr. Davenport examined every thing, to see that the guns were all in their proper places, as he generally kept a number always loaded, standing against the wall ready, in case of an attack. He then put a sack of sweet corn against the door, (locks were scarce in those days,) and retired to bed, but not to sleep. About the middle of the night, Jerome turned over, and, in doing so, rattled his powder horn. This alarmed the Indian, who sprang to his feet, and, giving a yell, rushed into the other room. By this time, Mr. Davenport, and his men, were up, with their guns in their hands, and when the Indians, in the other room, came rushing through the narrow passage, leveled their guns at them, and told them to move back, or they would fire on them. The Indians saw that they were prepared to fire, so they retreated, and shut the door at their end of the passage, and placed every thing they could find against it, to barricade it. Mr. Davenport did the same at the other end, and, with his men, stood on guard until sun-rise, expecting every moment some kind of attack would be made on them, but during the whole time they could not hear the least noise. As soon as it was light, they began to reconnoiter, but could not see any thing of the Indians - they had gone.
Some time afterwards, Mr. Davenport learned that the party had started out with the intention of killing the whole family, and plundering the store. Their plan, at first, was to get Mr. Davenport into the store, where they intended to tomahawk him, and then kill the rest without firing a gun, for fear of alarming the Fort. Their next move was to place the Indian in the room to sleep, so that he could get up, when all was asleep, and tomahawk as many as he could, and at the same time to give a yell, as a signal that they should come to his assistance. But a "guilty conscience" frightened him, when the Frenchman moved. He thought he was going to take the start of him. Failing in this attempt, they still kept prowling about the neighborhood, watching for any straggler who might venture out alone. They at last succeeded. Two soldiers got permission to go into the woods to cut a stick for-axe helves. They were cautioned not to go far from the Fort, but at sun-down, when the roll was called, it was found they were missing, and fearing they might be lost in the woods, one of the cannon was fired off, so they might know the direction of the Fort. Next morning, Lieut. Stubbs, and a party of soldiers came up to Mr. Davenport's house, and informed him that the two men were missing. He stated that he heard, the day before, about noon, the report of two guns, and had no doubt they were killed. He then got all of his men, and with the soldiers, formed a line, and struck across the Island in the direction of the sound of the gun, and when they had reached the middle of the Island, they found their bodies. Both had been shot and scalped!
In 1822, Mr. Davenport established a trading post at Fever River, in charge of "Amos Farrar." This was a very good point, at this time, for trade with the Indians, for furs and lead. He also had trading houses at Flint Hills, mouth of the Iowa River, Waupsipinica, and Makquoketa Rivers, besides three on Rock River. To attend to them all, and have them properly supplied, kept him constantly traveling from one post to another, sometimes on foot, sometimes in a canoe, and sometimes on horseback. His principal depot was on Rock Island. Here all the furs and skins had to be collected together, and here the out-fits of goods were made up, and sent off into the different parts of the country.
In 1823, the first steamboat arrived - the "Virginia." She was loaded with provisions for Prarie du Chien, and was from Wheeling. Mr. Davenport was called upon to Pilot her over the Rapids. He took his old "Patroon Debuts" with him. They were three or four days getting over. At this time quite a number of persons went up to Fever River to work the mines. Col.Wm. Johnson, of Kentucky, had obstained permission of the government to work the mines, and passed up the river with several keel boats loaded with provisions and tools. In a short time quite a village was formed at Fever River.
Two magistrates were appointed about the time by Gov. Cass of Michigan Territory. The following letter, written at the request of some of the inhabitants, will show the state of feeling at the idea of being in that Territory:
ROCK ISLAND, January; 1825.
Sir: About a year ago two magistrates' commissions were forwarded by Gov. Cass, of Michigan, to two respectable inhabitants of Fever River. They were recommended by a gentleman from Michigan, then concerned in a commercial way at that place, on the presumption that it belonged to Michigan, and one of the gentlemen so appointed acted by virtue of his commission. The people were dissatisfied at the idea of being attached to a Territory so remote, and with whom, in a whole age, they could have no social intercourse. Last Spring they had the pleasure of finding that the settlements on Fever River rightfully belonged to Illinois - upon which, the magistrate acting under the authority of Michigan, declined, and since sent on a formal resignation. Of course, they are at present in an awkward situation, in the absence of civil authority, and it is the cordial wish of the permanent population of that place, that no time may be lost in appointing the persons (recommended by them some time since as magistrates,) namely, Moses Meeker, and John Connelly.
Most respectfully, Sir, Yours,
D.D. SMITH, Esq., Atlas, Pike county, Illinois. N.B. Have the goodness to send me a prompt reply, (by the Military express, who pass through your town,) stating, circumstantially, all the forms necessary to the completion of the business, as I am much concerned in the ultimate welfare of the upper country, and you will much oblige.
I am informed that lately the Sheriff of Prarie du Chien (Crawford county, Michigan Territory,) visited the mines people, and exacted poll tax from them, some of whom were simple enough to pay, others manfully refused, and it gave umbrage to all. G.D."
The mails were carried, at this time, by express, from the Fort, the nearest Post Office was Clarksville, Missouri. In the Spring of 1825, Mr. Davenport received the following letter:
"GENERAL POST OFFICE} Washington City, 23d April, 1825. }
Sir: From the information I have received, I conclude it will be agreeable to you to accept of the office of Post Master, at Rock Island, Missouri. I herewith send you a copy of the law for regulating the Post Office, a key for opening the mail, and forms, and directions conformable therewith. You will find these at the Clarksville Post Office, Missouri. After executing the bond, and taking the oath, you may proceed in the duties of the office without waiting for a comission.
I am, sir, your most obedient servant, JOHN McLEAN.
To MR. GEORGE DAVENPORT."
In the Fall, Mr. Davenport received his commission, but it was two or three years before he took the oath of office, as their were no officer to administer it.
In the Fall of 1826, Mr. Bostwick, Pr. agent of the American Fur Company," arrived at Rock Island, and made an arrangement with him to become a member of that Company, purchased all his goods, trading posts, &c. Gave him the management of the trade from the mouth of the Iowa River up to Turkey River. Mr. Russell Farnam having charge of the trade below, and his main depot at "Fort Edwards." Mr. Rollette had charge of the trade above - his principle depot at "Prarie du Chien."
A few extracts from his daily record may give some idea of the "times:"
1826. Oct 21. Thos Forsyth, Indian Agent, and Dr. Craig, left here on Capt. Culver's keel boat for St. Louis.
Oct. 30. Mr. Rollette's keel boat passed down. Mr. Ingraham on board.
" 31. Mr. Lamalease left here for Rock River to build trading house.
" " Lieut. Clarke arrived with keel boat loaded with corn for St. Peters.
Oct. 31. Brought mail. Sent mail by Lieut. Clarke for Praire du Chien.
Nov. 1. Great fire across the river - all our hay stacks burnt.
" " Russel Farnam arrived in keel boat Oregon.
" " Mr. Burk, a Virginian, arrived, who had been lost sixteen days on Rock River.
Nov. 4. Mr. Farnam left for St. Louis.
" " Mr. Burk left for the mines - furnished him with a horse.
Nov. 5. Mr. Man's keel boat passed down from lead mines.
" " John K. Forsyth arrived from trading house on Rock River.
Nov. 6. Casnor, and my men, arrived with a canoe load of "coal" from Rock River.
Nov. 6. Keel boat "Oliver Perry" came in sight; put to, on account of the wind; arrived on the 7th.
Nov. 8. "Oliver Perry" passed up at 9o'clock A.M.; two bark canoes arrived from the mines; laid by on account of the wind; Capt. Lowe on board.
Nov. 9. Keel boat Missouri arrived at ten o'clock, and departed at three.
Nov. 13. Boat arrived from Rock River.
Nov. 15. Winnebago Chief, Carimonne, arrived from Waupsipinica.
Nov. 20. Keel boat Missouri, Capt. Otis Reynolds, from the mines, loaded with lead, for Davenport & Co. Martin Smith, and two men, arrived, to establish a wood-yard at the mouth of Rock River.
In the Spring 1827, Mr. Davenport started on a visit to his native place in England, after an absence of twenty-three years. He remained here about a year - visited London, and all the principle cities. He returned in May, 1828, to Rock Island. During this year, the first settlements were made in this vicinity. Two families (Judge Pence and his son,) arrived on the 9th day of December, at Black Hawk's village, and moved into the Indian houses. One of them occupied Black Hawk's Lodge. Several more families came directly after, among whom were John Spencer, Jonah Case, Wm. Brasher, Kinah Wells, Joshua Vandruff, Archy Allen, Geo. Harland, Thos. Hubbard, and Jno. Danforth. On the 27th December, Mr. Davenport's daily record says: "Geo. Wells came down for provisions, he having settled on the Rapids. He makes the tenth settler in our neighborhood,and one preacher, Rev. John Kinney, who preached the first time on the Island 29th of January, 1829." During the first year the settlers suffered very great hardships, and Mr. Davenport furnished many of them provisions and groceries, until they got their farms under cultivation and raised a crop.
In the Spring of 1829, the Indians returned to their village, and found the whites occupying their houses and corn-fields. Mr. Davenport used all his influence with the Indians to induce them to remove to the West side of the Mississippi, and partly succeeded. Waupello removed his village to Muscatine Slough, and Keokuk, with part of the Sacs, removed to Iowa river; but Black Hawk, and the remainder of the Sacs, refused to go, claiming that they never had sold their lands.
In Mr. Davenport's record we find, August 5th: Steamboat Josephine, with two keel boats, arrived; purchased one thousand bushels of corn t pay the Fox Chiefs for their improvements. August 14. The Fox Chiefs refused to receive the corn, for fear of being blamed by the Sacs for selling their village.
The Indian Agent, and the commanding officer, used every arguement to get Black Hawk to move West of the Mississippi, but without effect. In 1830, Mr. Davenport visited Washington City to see the President, (Gen. Jackson,) and Secretary of War, and recommended that the Government pay the Indians a few thousand dollars, (which they could well afford to do,) and that from his knowledge of their character, and customs, he felt satisfied that they would remove without any further trouble to the Government. This plan was not approved of by the President, who declared that they should move off.
In the Spring of 1831, the Indians again returned to their village, and shortly afterwards, Gen. Gaines, with four or five companies of Infantry, arrived. Gov. Reynolds also received a requisition for a number of companies of mounted volunteers, which were soon raised, and were on their way to Rock River, under command of Gen. Joseph Duncan. Shortly after, Gen. Gaines arrived. He notified Black Hawk to meet him in Council at the Agency, (which ws half a mile from the Fort.) On the day appointed Black Hawk, and a large number of Warriors, arrived on the South side of the Island, and marched across to the Council Chamber. They were dressed in the full war costume, and most of them armed with bows and arrows, and war clubs, and what seemed singular, it was noticed that their bows were all bent, and ready for use.
Directly afterwards Gen. Gaines arrived with his Staff Officers and an Orderly, but had no guard. They entered the Council Room and arranged themselves at one end, while Black Hawk and his party occupied the other three sides and center. Mr. Davenport noticed that they acted in very bold and defiant manner, and that the friendly Indians appeared to be much alarmed. He went to one of the officers and advised him to send the Orderly as quickly as possible to the Fort and have a strong guard sent up, which was done at once. The Council commenced by Gen. Gaines addressing them, and stating why he had come, and that they must move off or he would be compelled to use force. He made the enquiry," who this Black Hawk was, that was giving the Government so much trouble?" This offended Black Hawk very much, and the Indians became very excited. The began to call across the room to one another, and seemed to try to increase the excitement of those on the outer side, by their yells and whopping; but fortunately the guard now came up, which fact, Mr. Davenport thought, was all that saved them from being attacked and massacred.
The first Black Hawk war now commenced, but was of short duration. When the large number of volunteers arrived at the site of the village, Black Hawk thought they were too strong to fight, and accordingly he moved to the west side of the river during the night. In the Spring of 1832 Black Hawk returned with his party, more hostile than ever. The inhabitants all flocked into the Fort with their families, for protection. Mr. Davenport fortified his house, built a stockade around it with bastions at two corners, in order to use a small swivel for protecting the sides, and had his men all well armed, and their places pointed out in case of attack. He had been informed that the Black Hawk party had determined in council, that he and two others (Gen. Clark and the Indian Agent,) should be killed, as they had done so much to weaken their party. "Neopope" was appointed to carry out this threat; but Black Hawk having passed on up Rock River and the troop following him, the people were not molested.
During the Black Hawk war Mr. Davenport received a commission from Gov. Reynolds, appointing him acting Quarter Master General, with the rank of Colonel. In the latter part of the Summer of 1832 the Cholera broke out among the troops on the Island, and raged fearfully for about ten days; one hundred died out of a population of four hundred; every person was dreadfully alarmed. An incident occured during this time which will show the state of feeling. Mr. Davenport, Mr. LeClaire, and a young Officer were standing together in front of the store one morning. The Officer had been giving them an account of the number of deaths and new cases, when a Orderly ame up to them with a message from Gen. Scott to Mr. LeClaire, requesting him to come down to the Fort as soon as possible. Mr. LeClaire looked at Mr. Davenport to know what excuse to make. Mr. Davenport, after a moment, replied to the Orderly to tell Gen. Scott that Mr. LeClaire could not come, as he was quite sick. The Officer and Orderly laughed heartily at Mr. Davenport and Mr. LeClaire being so much alarmed; but next morning the first news they received from the Fort, was, that the two men were dead.
At the time the cholera broke out at Fort Armstrong, there was two Fox Chiefs condined in the guard-house for killing the Menomonies at Prairie du Chien, and had been given up by their nation as the leaders, on the demand of our Government, and were awaiting their trial. Mr. Davenport interceded for them with the Commanding officer, to let them out of their prison, and give them range of the Island, with a promise that they should be forthcoming when they were wanted. The Indians were released, and they pledged their word not to leave the Island until permitted to do so by the proper authorities. During all the time the fearful epidemic raged upon the Island, and every person was fleeing from it, that could get away, these two Chiefs remained on the Island, hunting and fishing, and when the sickness had subsided, they presented themselves at the Fort to await their trial, thus showing how binding a pledge of this kind was with this tribe of Indians. Mr. Davenport, for many years, was in the habit of crediting the Chiefs of the different villages for from fifty to sixty thousand dollars worth of goods annually, having nothing but their word pledged for payment of them, which they always faithfully performed.
In 1833, Mr. Davenport built his late residence, and moved out of his "Old Cabin." In 1834, Rock Island county was organized, and John Spencer, John Vannatte, and Mr. Davenport, were elected the first County Commissioners of that county. The county seat was located, and the town of Stephenson laid out, (now the city of Rock Island,) and the lots sold at public sale. They established roads, and built bridges, in various parts of the county. They were re-elected several times, and their administration of the affairs of the county gave very general satisfaction to the people.
In the Fall of 1835, Mr. Davenport, Maj. Smith, Maj. Gordon, Mr. Hambaugh, Mr. McGregor, Mr. Colton, and Capt. May, purchased a claim of Mr. LeClaire (he retaining and eighth part,) upon which to lay out a town. The proprietors agreed to name it Davenport, in honor of their friend, Mr. Davenport. The town was surveyed and laid out by Major Gordon, assisted by Mr. Bennett, who were, at this time, engaged by the Government to survey Mr. LeClaire's "Reserves."
In the Spring of 1836, Mr. Davenport sold the site upon which the famous "Rock Island City" was laid out, (near the mouth of the Rock River,) retaining a quarter interest. In the Fall of that year, he, and some others, purchased an interest in Mr. LeClaire's Reserve at the head of the Rapids, upon which they laid out a town, which they named LeClaire, in honor of Mr. LeClaire; and about the same time he purchased an interest in the town of Port Byron, on the opposite side of the River, thus becoming interested in the rise and progress of all the towns in this vicinity.
In the Fall of 1837, Mr. Davenport accompanied Keokuk, Wapello, Poweshiek, Black Hawk, and about forty of the principle Chiefs and Braves of the Sac and Fox nation, to Washington City, and assisted Government, by his influence with the Indians, in making a very good purchase of a large portion of Iowa.
About this time, Mr. Davenport purchased an interest in Mr. LeClaire's Reserve, adjoining the town, upon which they laid out the first addition to the town of Davenport, of about twelve blocks, and the following season another addition was laid out by Mr. LeClaire, of which Mr. Davenport purchased one third interest.
In the Spring of 1838, Mr. Davenport and Mr. LeClaire bought a large stock of goods, and opened a store, under the firm of Davenport & LeClaire, on the corner of Front and Main streets; this was considered the largest store in the country for some time. Persons came a great distance to purchase their goods and provisions.
Mr. Davenport still continued the Indian trade at his store on Rock Island. The Indians came in from Iowa, DesMoines, and Cedar Rivers, about every three months, for their supplies.
In 1838, Mr. Davenport received the following letter from one of the Proprietors of Davenport, who was sutler to the troops in Florida, which may be interesting to some of the readers of this work:
TAMPA BAY, September 3, 1858.
Dear Sir: I have no doubt you have long since concluded that a certain person, P.G. Hambaugh, is "Co-ga-co:" I did anticipate the pleasure of returning to your place ere this, but have been disappointed. I have no doubt but you know as much about the Florida war as I do; there will be another winter campaign, but whether on a large or small scale I am not able to say. Some gentlemen in Havana has proposed furnishing "blood hounds" for the purpose of hunting down the Indians in the Hammocks, and his plan is looked upon by a majority of experienced officers as the most feasible one yet suggested. The Government will, I presume, condemn this mode of warfare, however, as being too inhuman to be practiced by a civilized nation, and it is too expensive to be undertaken by any individual.
I am told Davenport goes ahead. I wish to God I was there, with a few thousand dollars. What is the prospect of securing the town to the proprietors by pre-emption? I hope you and Mr. LeClaire will use every exertion to do so, and also to protect my interest while I am absent. I make this request because I shall undoubtedly (if I live,) return there, and make it my permanent residence; nothing keeps me in this infernal country but the prospect of making enough to place me in easy circumstances when I return, and another winter's campaign will do it, unless I meet with some unforseen misfortune. Write to me, and give me all the local news; tell me if Davenport is the "County Seat," and if it is to be the "Capital of Iowa;" tell me who the prominent men about Davenport are. What has become of Gordon? Remember me to all my friends, and particularly to "Mosquakee."
In the fall of 1841, the Indian payments were made at the Agency on DesMoines River. The Indians from all the different villages gathered there to receive their annuities. Mr. Davenport, and most of the Indian traders, attended there, during the payment. Gov. Lucas, Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Iowa, made an attempt to make a treaty with the Sacs and Foxes to purchase all their lands within the State, but utterly failed. He had determined he would make a treaty with the Indians without the assistance of the Traders, and that they should have nothing to do with it. He was particularly opposed to the American Fur Company, (then Pr. Chouteauju & Co.) He ordered them to retire to their trading house, about a mile from the Agency, and posted a guard of dragoons at the house, to prevent any communication with the Indians. Among those that were placed under guard with Mr. Davenport, was Mr. LeClaire, as he was considered friendly with the Fur Company and the Indians. When he had assembled the Chiefs and Braves of the two tribes, he made them his proposition - to buy their country. The Chiefs replied, that they always consulted their old friends, whom they had known for many years, and had the greatest confidence in, and that they had understood their old Traders had been placed under guard, and not allowed to have any communications with them, they, therefore, declined making any treaty with him.
In 1842, Gov. Chambers made a treaty with the Sacs and Foxes. He took a different plan. He told the Chiefs to select any of their white friends they might choose, to assist them in making a treaty. They selected Mr. Davenport, Mr. LeClaire, Mr. Sanford, and Mr. Phelps. By this treaty the Indians sold all of their lands within the state of Iowa, and agreed to remove West of the Missouri River.
After this treaty, Mr. Davenport withdrew from the Fur Company, and gave up the Indian trade, being engaged in this business about twenty-three years, during which time he had made twenty trips to St. Louis with his keel boat. The shortest time in coming from St. Louis to Rock Island was eleven days, having a fair wind most of the time. The longest trip was forty days.
Mr. Davenport now devoted his time to the improvement of his property in Davenport and Rock Island. About this time he laid out an addition to the flourishing town of Moline.
Mr. Davenport was of a very free and generous disposition, very jovial, and very fond of company. He now, generally, spent the Winters in St. Louis or Washington City. If he traveled on a steamboat, or while at his hotel, he would always have a crowd around him, listening to his anecdotes and stories. He never sued any one in his life, and could not bear to see any one in distress without trying to relieve him. He enjoyed excellent health and spirits, and had the prospect of living many years to enjoy the comforts for which he had toiled so hard for so many years, but he was struck down by the hand of one of a band of robbers, in his own home, on the fourth of July, 1845. He died aged sixty-two years.
The following lines were written by Dr. E. Keskup, who was present:
* * * * * * *
Hark! What that sound that makes the angler cast his rod aside. Hark! again; that cry, 'tis murder! - the dreadful words are Echoed back the woodland through, while Consternation wild is graven deeply in the lines of every face; The heart, first check'd, now leaps with tumultuous throe, and the warm blood, That was wont to run its circuit mildly through, clogs the swollen vein. 'Twas a sad scene. Upon his dying bed, abused, despoil'd, lay one Whom we (so long had he sojourned on that fair isle,) had look'd upon as a portion of the spot;
His long fair hair dishevel'd by the brutal hand. His life was ebbing fast, as flow'd the gushing heart's blood from his wound, How chang'd the scene, that in the morn Was joy and gladness; pity and despair or schemes of dark revenge, Were trac'd upon each varying face, And then with heavy heart the throng wound slow their homeward way. The voice of love was still, and all was mute And sad, and silent, as the grave.
In concluding the life of Col. Davenport, it may be well to add a few lines regarding his life apart from the mere incidents in which he was involved. His life, as had been seen, was a long and active one - the position he occupied required anything but a human drone to fill it - and his whole career, from beginning to close, was replete with ceaseless activity. Although of trans-atlantic extraction, he was the true type of the American - possessing indomitable resolution, a restless desire to progress, with an invincible determination to overcome obstacles, and achieve success. Added to these qualities, was an eminent ability to read human nature, to resolve its problems, and array the prejudices, motives, hostilities, or what not, of all about him, in a manner that finally best aided his own undertakings. Especially was this last circumstance prominent in all his dealings with the Red Man. He read them as men, approached them as such, and by this humane and judicious procedure, received in almost all cases from them such treatment as men extend to each other. He was worthy of all honor for the love borne him by the savage - it is an evidence that, like the philanthropic and immortal PENN, he rose above the vulgar and inhuman prejudices of the age, and found in the Indian, if not a brother, at least a conscientious being, who could be driven to deeds of revenge and carnage by ill-treatment, or could be made a firm, reliable, honorable friend, by treating him as a MAN.
Much as Mr. Davenport's courage, perseverance, enterprise, and ability, demand admiration, there is still something more than these commanding our respect and honor - something which is more lustrous that wealth, better than postition or title - it was HUMANITY! Had men of his bias dealt with Black Hawk, and his "British Band," less gory scalp locks would have decked the belts of warring savages - less blood have been shed, and the entire fearful drama of devastation, slaughter, and carnage, which was enacted upon our frontiers a few years since, would have been wholly omitted.
Honor to his ashes - he sleeps in a grave whose proud epitaph reads-
HERE LIES A FRIEND TO HUMANITY!