ST. PATRICK'S DAY ARTICLES
Celebrations and Miscellaneous Trivia
Iowa City Citizen
Iowa City, Johnson, Iowa
March 15, 1919
ST. PATRICK'S PEOPLE CELEBRATE TOMORROW.
A splendid program will be given at St. Brendan's Hall Sunday
evening at 8 o'clock in Honor of St. Patrick, the patron saint whose birth is
celebrated March 17.
The program will be given under the direction and auspices of
the Ancient Order of Hibernians and the Ladies Auxiliary. Stephen Bradley,
county chairman of the Hibernians, will preside.
Following is the program:
"Hail to America"- Huffen................... High
"A Nation Once Again"- Johnson....... High
Irish Folk Dances.............................. Marie
Baldwin, Elizabeth Dorcas.
The Harp that once through
Halls................................... Catherine Mullin
Mary Agnes Flannagan
W.R. Hart, Jr.
Address, Ireland a Nation................ Judge M.F.
Nashua, Chickasaw, Iowa
March 15, 1917
WHY THE SHAMROCK IS WORN
Worn Not Only in Honor of the Saint, but in Remembrance of Days of Famine.
Who put a sprig of shamrock in their buttonhole on the
17th of March realize that these little green sprigs more than once kept the
Irish from death in dire famine times.
In 1596 the poet Spenser declares that the war had brought
the miserable inhabitants of Munster to a point where they "flock to a plot
of watercresses or shamrocks as to a feast." This "View of
Ireland" he describes as the depth of ruin to which a land formerly having
abundant corn and cattle had been plunged.
The troublous times continued and the shamrock is mentioned
as an article of food again and again. Fynes ?arrison, in 1598, writes that the
herb is still "being snatched out of the ditches for food."
Withers in "Abuses Stript and Stript" (1613) sings:
And for my clothing in a mantle go
And feed on shamrocks as the Irish doe.
Not until later was the shamrock used as the national emblem
of Erin. Nathaniel Colgan, member of the Royal Irish academy, says the earliest
record of the "wearing o' the green" is contained in the diary of
Thomas Dinely, who wrote in 1687:
"17th day of March yearly is St. Patrick, an immovable
feast, when the Irish of all stations and conditions wear crosses in their hats,
some of pins, some of green ribbon, and the vulgar superstitiously wear
shamrogues, three-leaved grass, which they likewise eat (they say to cause sweet
breath.) The common people and servants also demand their Patrick's groat of
their masters, which they go expressly to town, though half a dozen miles off,
to spend, where sometimes it amounts to a piece of eight or a cobb apiece, and
very few of the zealous are found sober at night."
A later reference to the wearing of the shamrock appears in
the works of Dr. Caleb Threlkeid, a botanist of the early nineteenth century. He
says: "The people wear the plant in their hats in commemoration of St.
Patrick, "believing that St. Patrick used the three-lobed leaf to explain
the Christian Trinity. This belief is generally said by antiquarians to have
arisen in the fourteenth century, almost a thousand years after the time of
Patritius" who died in A.D. 403.
In that year, says the Annale of Ulster, "Patritius, the
arch-apostle of the Scoti (Irish) rested on the 16th day of the calends of April
(March 17) in the one hundred and twentieth year of his life, the sixtieth year
after he had come to Ireland to baptize the Scoti."
It was the foundation of St. Patrick's greatness that his
renovation of Ireland was not a revolution. He left old institutions untouched,
wherever they could be purged of a taint of superstition. There were septs and
clans, judges, bards and kings before him, and they continued after him. He
built his church carefully. To disarm political opposition he appeared straight
to the heads of the clans. He aimed at the creation of administrative clergy. He
tried to give every community a place of worship. At his death 365 churches lay
along the roads his journeys had taken; 365 bishops were distributed throughout
the land, 3,000 priests ministered to the spiritual wants of the nation. He
attempted to throw into the church thus suddenly created a strong element of
stability by systematizing it on the models of the canons and making
ecclesiastical law effective in every department.
He did not believe in sanctity unassociated with education.
Under him religion created great monasteries and monasteries created great
schools. By those schools St. Patrick is a factor in the history of Europe. Even
before he went to Ireland he had seen the days when Ostrogoths established
themselves in Pannonia and Thrace, when the Visigoths sacked the Italian
peninsula from end to end and carved out a Spanish kingdom within the domain of
great Rome, when the Huns rode their blazing course up the Danube and the Rhine
almost to the ocean; when the Vandals terrorized Spain and crushed the power of
the empire in northern Africa, when the Salian Franks took firm grip of northern
Gaul. His long life stretches over a period during which the whirlwind of
barbaric invasions swept away all but a remnant of the ancient language. But now
the world went to Ireland, and the Irish brought their school to the world.
Religion, the ancient classics, law, history, natural science, agriculture,
manual training, the use of implements and the forge, all came within the scope
of these intense and practical scholars.
Not without reason has the name of St. Patrick been held in
veneration through these many generations. There is nowhere a teacher whose
services for learning exerted so wide an influence in a time so critical for all
culture. There is nowhere a statesman whose activity so completely reformed the
character of any people. There is nowhere such a national hero whose fame is
sounded across fifteen centuries and can still stir emotions of enthusiasm far
beyond his nation's shores. There is nowhere a saint whose teachings are blended
like his with the destinies of his nation.
Irish Leaders in American History.
The Declaration of Independence has twelve Irish names.
Matthew Thornton, James Smith, and George Taylor were born in Ireland; John
Hancock, William Whipple, Robert Treat Paine, George Read, Thomas McKean, Edward
Nelson and Thomas Lynch were of Irish parentage. The secretary of congress who
prepared the immortal document from the rough draft of Thomas Jefferson was
Charles Thompson, a native of Derry, while Captain Dunlop, still another
Irishman, printed it, and published it to the world. Captain Dunlop was the
founder of the first daily paper in Philadelphia.
Remember Native Land.
No other people coming to our shores have displayed toward
their native land a love more wholesome than the Irish. They keep their children
fed upon the tales of the fairies and "little people" who are good to
the good children, and whose wrath descends upon the children who are not doing
Church and Tower at Kells.
The celebrated Book of Kells was written there in the sixth
century. This church is famous for its historical associations. The town of
Kells originated in a monastery founded by St. Columba.
The towers, which are numerous throughout Ireland, have been
the subject of much controversy among antiquarians. They are thought to have
been used as a means of defense.
Four or Five-Leaved Shamrock?
Some say the four-leaf shamrock is the shamrock of luck, and
others say that it is the five leaved one that holds the magic touch. This
latter is rare and prized and said to grow from a decaying body, as the nettle
is said to spring from buried human remains. The shamrock of luck must be found
"without searching, without seeking." When thus discovered it should
be cherished and preserved as an invincible talisman.
Many Irish Flags.
Quite a number of flags have figured in Irish history. Not
the least popular among these is the flag exhibiting three golden crowns imposed
on a blue ground. This flag was accepted after the Norman invasion in the year
1170, as the ensign of Ireland, the three crowns representing the kingdoms of
Desmond, Ormond and Thomond. It was retained until 1547 when Henry VIII
abolished it and substituted the harp.
Date of Saint's Death.
In his extreme old age St. Patrick wrote his
"Confession," which concludes with these words: "And this is my
confession before I die." He died at Saul on the 17th of March, A.D. 465.
The roster of the revolutionary war is bright with Irish
names. General Montgomery was a native of Donegal. Lord Mountjoy in a speech
before the house of commons declared. "You have lost America through the
In Education and Sports.
Among the Irish educators in America may be mentioned Horace
Greeley, William Rainey Harper and William Maxwell. The Olympic games of a few
years ago were planned by Sullivan Halpin and Mike Murphy. Martin Sheridan, the
great all-around athlete, is Irish, and the national game of baseball is claimed
as of Irish origin.
True to His Allegiance.
The Celts were the last of the races to accept Christianity,
but having accepted it, they cling tenaciously. The Irish Celt is slow to adopt
either religious or political innovations, but once his allegiance is given, it
is extremely difficult to shake it.
Presidents of Irish Parentage.
Presidents of Irish parentage were Thomas Jefferson, Andrew
Jackson, James Polk, James Buchanan, Chester A. Arthur, and William McKinley.
Calhoun, also Irish, said "War may make us great, but peace alone can make
us both great and free."
For Fifteen Centuries the Reek Has Played Important Part in Country's
It is in the month of July that the great annual pilgrimage
of The Reek takes place.
The Reek, sometimes known as Croagh Patrick, is the Mount
Zion of the Emerald Isle. For on its summit St. Patrick is said to have wrung
from the angel many promises for the salvation of the people he had made his
For fifteen centuries this mountain has played an important
part in the religious history of Ireland, and year by year people journey by the
thousands up the mountain, which is about 3,000 feet high. It is a steep and
difficult ascent, occupying the best part of three hours, and most of the
pilgrims make it in the evening, so as to hold their vigil on the summit. There
is a little chapel on the mountain top. But it is so small that few can find a
place therein, and most kneel outside.
The sermons preached are in Gaelic, and the masses continue
from daybreak until noon.
St. Patrick is on record as having visited the Reek in A.D.
441 and spent forty days on its summit hidden from the world by the mists
hanging about the lower portion of the mountain. The legend says that he was
assailed by huge black birds, which only took to flight when he rang his bell
against them. The bell rolled down the mountain, but an angel came and restored
it to the saint. All of the men of Erin heard this ringing of the bell, and it
is stated now that it is often heard again.
Afterward St. Patrick was visited by angels, and from their
leader he wrested the following pledges: That as many souls as should be saved
as could fill the horizon which he looked upon; that on every Thursday seven
souls and on every Saturday twelve souls should be freed from purgatory; that
whoever recited the last verse of his hymn constantly should suffer no torments
in the next world, and that on the last day he should be appointed to sit in
judgment on the sins of Gael.
Greene, Butler, Iowa
March 19, 1913
St. Patrick, the great apostle or saint of the Catholic
faith, was born in Scotland in 372. For a time he was a captive and slave of the
king of Dalaradia, in Ireland, from 388 to 395. From here he went to Gaul where
he was ordained a priest and returned as a missionary to Ireland in 432, dying
at Saul, March 17, 465, which day has ever since been sacred to his memory. St.
Patrick is said to have had little education, but that he possessed so much
discretion, along with great, good sense and piety that he so completely
evangelized the petty and numerous tribes of Ireland that it became known as the
"Island of Saints." His was such a remarkable character that many
fabulous stories grew up about him and his wonderful power such as having
banished all the frogs and snakes from Ireland, but which of course are given no
credence now. But this great character possessed a wonderful power over men. The
tribes he converted were of Pagan religion; they were war like in nature and but
partially civilized. He first won over the chiefs and then the conversion of the
clans was not a difficult task.
Iowa City Press Citizen
Iowa City, Johnson, Iowa
March 17, 1921
St. Patrick's Day
Patron Saint of The Emerald Isle
Made it Christian
Sad Celebration of His Land Today.
Core of the News.
By Dale E. Carrell.
Today is known to the world as St. Patrick's Day, the
birthday of the patron saint of Ireland, and to those of Celtic blood in every
quarter of the globe it is a day of tender sentiment.
Saint Patrick's biography is part legendary and part fact.
There is a disagreement as to the year of his birth, where he was born and where
he died, but his own memoirs and his works contribute sufficient evidence to
show how great was this beloved man who did so much for Ireland.
Some commentators say he was born about 373, others in 389.
Some say he was born in Scotland, some in England and some in France. Some aver
he died in France but most contend that he went to the great beyond in the land
of his adoption, Ireland. Even the day of March on which he was born is a matter
of contention. Some held for years that he was born on the night of the 8th of
March, while others contend he first saw the light of day on the 9th of March,
and history tells us that the two factions agreed to a compromise which resulted
in the adding of 8 and 9 thus the 17th of March has become known as Saint
But wherever he was born and when, his name has been forever
associated with Ireland. When he was but 16, it is said he was carried away by a
band of marauders and was sold into slavery in Ireland. For over six years he is
said to have tended the herds of Celtic chieftains. At the age of 22 he escaped
from Ireland and wandered far even into a monastery near the Mediterranean Sea,
where he studied hard and fitted himself for the carrying out of his dream, the
Christianizing of Ireland. He returned to Ireland but this time not as a slave
but as a missionary and thru his preaching, paganism, as taught by the Druids,
was driven from the Emerald Isle. He is said to have founded over 360 churches
and baptized thousands with his own hands. He also introduced the Latin language
into Ireland and brought the then isolated isle into close touch with the
civilization of western Europe. He brought enlightenment and civilization to
Ireland and it is little wonder that the generations that have followed have
held him in such reverence.
Saint Patrick has left behind him, besides the history of his
great achievements in Ireland, three important documents. One is known as his
"Confession", which gives some account of his life. An other is
addressed to a British or Welsh chief rebuking the murder of Christians,and the
last is the "Hymn of St. Patrick" which is a cherished song of praise.
Saint Patrick was not only a man of deep spiritual nature but
he was also a leader, a man of action, who was able to overcome obstacles and
obtain the end in view. His leadership and life has ever been an inspiration to
Irishmen, and when his birthday is observed hearts have beaten faster, eyes have
brightened and the dreams of liberty have been renewed. He gave liberty
and freedom to the Irish from paganism and ignorance, and he has inspired in
later generations a hope of freedom and independence for the Irish as a nation
whereby self-government is realized. Today is perhaps one of the saddest of all
Saint Patrick's days for the Irish. The land of shamrocks, of beautiful lakes,
of bog and fen, does not resound with the happy laughter of children, with
prayers of thanksgiving of its people, but instead there are cries of anguish,
agonizing groans of the dying, and blood is flowing on every hand coloring
crimson the sacred soil where Saint Patrick lived and dyeing red the blue waters
of the lakes and rivers. Yet after all, there doubtless is a ray of hope, a
gleam of sunshine peeping thru which is brought by Saint Patrick, counselling
courage and pointing out that as he overcame all obstacles, that even not far
distant is the consummation of the dream of all Irishmen, freedom for their
race. The fight has been long, the way strewn with death and sacrifice, but when
victory comes with the solving of the Irish problem, it should be all the more
revered and gratifying.
Iowa City Press Citizen
Iowa City, Johnson, Iowa
March 17, 1924
MANY ATTEND ST. PATRICK'S DAY SERVICES
Address by Rev. John A. Glenn, Based on Ireland's Growth
Stirs Big Throng.
St. Patrick, patron saint of Ireland, was honored nobly,
Sunday night, at the auditorium which bears the famed glorified name.
The program previously published herein, was presented to a
large and appreciative audience.
Vocal numbers by the High School Glee club solos by Miss Mary
Pugh, William Holland, and Jeanne Wolfe were superb, and each artist won and
responded to encores.
Choice readings by Margaret Toomey and Mary Kelly likewise
evoked warm encores.
An especially pleasing number of novel type was the
exhibitions of Irish jig dancing by Mrs. John Cox who set every foot in the
house trembling in unison.
All in all, the musical, Terpsichorcan, and literary program
was one of merit, par excellence.
Eloquent Address Thrills.
An eloquent address, by Rev. John A. Glenn, of Williamsburg,
thrilled and stirred by its thoughtful, inspirational oratory.
His subject was "Ireland's Place in the Growth of Civil
and Religious Liberty."
Father Glenn dwelt at length upon the disabilities, both
civil and religious under which the people of Ireland suffered for many
centuries. He called attention to the fact that probably no other European
people could claim that they never oppressed or held in subjection the people of
another language or race.
Irish Hate of Intolerance.
The result of centuries of misrule, he said, and of barbarous
oppression was that the people of Ireland became installed with an undying
hatred of tyranny, and wherever they have gone in every part of the world for
centuries past, they have been found fighting in the ranks of freedom.
Names Flame High to Heaven.
Father Glenn declared also, that the name of Irishmen are
emblazened on the pages, that record the struggle for civil and religious
liberty of every people, of every continent under the sun.
He dwelt particularly upon the part played by Irishmen and
their descendants in America's Revolutionary struggle. He averred that a large
element in the Colonies was willing to take less than complete independence, but
nothing could satisfy men like John Carroll the first Catholic bishop of
Baltimore, and his kinsman, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, one of the signers of
the Declaration of Independence; John Barry, father of the American Navy;
Stephen Moylan, a general in the Colonial Army and scores of other sons of Erin.
It is declared that one-half of the rank and file of the American Army were of
Irish blood. Washington's adopted son said the the Irish soldiers outnumbered
all other foreign warriors.
Father Glenn denounced the spirit of intolerance still
existing at times, more or less virulent as at present- which "in the name
of Americanism and with high sounding phases about liberty and our free
institutions would deprive Catholics, Jews, and others of this country of the
Civil and religious liberty for which the Fathers of the Revolution made the
Wins All Hearts.
Father Glenn's address, a superb bit of oratory, made a deep
impression upon all. "It was a real candid and judicious survey of a highly
interesting theme," declared Very Rev. William P. Shannahan in discussing
the oration afterwards.