VERE-FOSTER's Penny Emigrant Guide
  "Emigration to North America"


     The following information for the use of intending Emigrants, and of persons having superfluous money, and desirous to use it in bettering the condition of the poor of the United Kingdom, is founded on personal experience and observation.
  I sailed from Liverpool to New York on the 27th of October, 1850, as a steerage passenger, in the packet ship "Washington,"   in company with 933 fellow passengers, providing myself with
the usual emigrant's fare, and cooking my own provisions; and afterwards travelled 10,500 miles, within the limits of the   United States and Canada, for the express purpose of ascertaining, by personal observation, the requirements of emigrants on board ship, and their prospects of employment in different parts of  those countries. My journal of the voyage was printed in 1851  by order of the House of Commons, and may be had through any  bookseller, price three half-pence. Paper 198-51. To such   persons as desire further information, I recommend J.O'Hanlon's  Irish Emigrant's Guide, price 1s., which may be had, on  personal application only, at the Emigrant Society's Office,  Northumberland-buildings, Dublin, or  which I am ready to  send free by post on receipt of twelve postage stamps, directed,  before the 30th April, to 5, Whitehall-yard, London, and after  that time to Post Office, Dublin.  The Colonization Circular of the Commissioners of Emigration,  price 3d., will also give much useful information.
    The advantages of emigration to North America, rather than to Australia, wages being about the same in both countries, are  as follows: -
1.   Because, while the lowest expense of passage for one person  to Australia is 15, six persons can often get for less than that sum to North America; and while the one in Australia can earn
the means of sending one relation, the six in America can earn the means of sending for thirty six of their relations, and even more, for they will lose five months less time in their own voyage out and the voyage home of their money letters,
2.   Because in North America a very large number of emigrants are much more sure of finding employment, owing to their being a much larger resident population to give employment; since all
the Australian Colonies, Van-Dieman's Land, and New Zealand, put together, do not contain much over, 350,000 inhabitants, including natives, and between twenty and thirty thousand convicts,
whereas the population of North America exceeds already 26,000,000
3.   Because the price of land is far cheaper, The United States hold some further inducements than Canada, among which I will mention two, namely: -
 1.  That wages are higher in all parts of the United States than in almost any part of Canada, and the winters are less long and severe, consequently there is a more certain prospect of constant employment the year round.
 2.  That, while the lowest price of the worst Government land in Upper Canada, which is the only part of Canada worth emigrating to, is 6s. 7d. per acre; in Australia,  1 per acre; the price of the best Government land in the United States is only 5s. 3d. per acre.
     The best parts of North America for emigrants to go are the  peninsula of Upper Canada between Lakes Ontario, Erie, and Huron, the country back of Toronto, the State of Ohio, Western New York, Western Pennsylvania, Western Virginia, Indiani, and the more thickly settled parts of Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, and Wisconsin. In all these States, except Iowa, railroads and other public works are being carried on extensively, and Iowa will, no doubt, soon begin.
       The usual wages throughout the United States and the Canadian Peninsula for servant girls are from four to eight dollars a   month, besides their board, a dollar being equal to 4s. 2d.   Newly arrived emigrants must not expect four dollars, and  good cooks may, in large houses, after a time get as much  as twelve dollars. The wages of farm labourers, in addition  to board, lodging, and washing, vary from eight to eighteen  dollars per month. Daily wages on public works throughout all
parts of the United States are one dollar a day, or more, in  summer, and from 3s. to 3s. 6d. in winter  Board and lodging  costs usually about 2 dollars a week, varying from 1 3/4 to 3  dollars a week. The wages of other persons are as follows, for which my authority is O'Hanlon's Guide: -
                         s. d.     s. d.
Carpenters       6  3  to  8  4 per day and found.
Bricklayers       6  3  to  9  4 per day not found.
Masons            5  2  to  8  4 per day and found.
Plasterers         6  3  to  8  4 per day and found.
Painters            6  3  to 12  6 per day not found.
Tailors              4  2  to  6  3 per day not found.
Boot and Shoemakers  5  2  to  6  3 per day not found.
    Clerks and shopmen will with difficulty get situations. Teachers will be welcome to board and lodging, but very little pay. Young women emigrating should not omit to take testimonials
with them.
    Vessels sail for America from Liverpool, London, Glasgow, Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway, and Londonderry. As regards mere ships, Liverpool ranks highest; as regards treatment of passengers, lowest. The principal ports of arrival in America are Quebec, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and New Orleans.
    The advantages of going to Quebec or New Orleans are the great  facility, at a very cheap rate, of reaching far distant points  in the interior without charge of conveyance. From Quebec to  Toronto or Hamilton, 570 miles, be steamboat, the fare is from  8s. to 12s. - time, 3 to 3 1/2 days. From New Orleans,  throughout the heart of the Western States, to Cincinnati, 1577 miles, or to St. Louis, 1212 miles, the deck fare is from 2 to 5 dollars  without provisions; cabin fare, with three meals, bed and attendance,  from 7 to 10 or 12 dollars - time, 7 to 10 days; very go ahead boats  charging more, and going nearly twice as fast. The fare from St. Louis  to Dubuque, in Iowa, a further distance of 426 miles is about one  and a half dollars; and from Cincinnati to Pittsburgh, 485 miles,  one dollar, when the river is full. The time to sail for Quebec is  from 1st April to 1st August; to New Orleans, from the end of  September to 1st April.  The passage to Boston is usually more expensive by 10s. than  to other ports, and the journey from Boston into the interior is also  more expensive.
     The advantages of going to New York are the more abundant  choice of the best ships, - with, however, the worst treatment, - and  the variety of railway and other communication from thence into  the interior. There are two principal routes into the interior  from New York; the one by steamboat to Albany, and by railroad on  to Buffalo on Lake Erie, and the other by the New York and Erie  Railway to Dunkirk, also on Lake Erie, the fare either way  being at present 4 dollars, - time 33 hours. The canal boats from  Albany to Buffalo take so long that there is no saving of expense in  going by them. A third principal route to the west is by way of  Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, the fare being to Philadelphia  1 1/2 dollars, and on to Pittsburgh 3 to 5 dollars more.
From New York            Time    Fare, American     Fare,English
                                                      Currency           Currency
                          Hours   Dollars Cents          s.  d.
Dunkirk                   30        4     00         0   16   8
Buffalo                     33        4     00         0   16   8
Cleveland                40        4     50         0   18   9
Sandusky                 48        5     00         1    0  10
Toledo                     50        5     00         1    0  10
Detroit                     50        5     00         1    0  10
Chicago                   68        7     00         1    9   4
Racine                     75        7     00         1    9   4
Milwaukie                78        7     00         1    9   4
Cincinnati                 55        7     50         1   11   3

    100 lbs. Baggage FREE to each Full Passenger. 1 dol. 25 cents. per 100 lbs. of extra Baggage to Dunkirk. 1 dol. 50 cents per 100 lbs. extra Baggage to Detroit, &c., on Lake Erie. 2 dols. per 100 lbs. extra Baggage to Chicago or  Milwaukie.
    Philadelphia and Baltimore are convenient ports from which to  reach the western parts of Pennsylvania and Virginia, and the borders of the Ohio River.
    The proper time to sail for New York and Philadelphia, for those who are going far into the interior of the country, or have no homes to go to near the coast, is from the middle of February to themiddle of August. Travelling is extremely expensive in winter.                                
     Emigrants should not, as a general rule, suffer themselves to be so misguided as to pay in Europe their passage any further than to the port of arrival of their ship in America. They can gain
nothing by this, and lose much. Nevertheless, I believe that Mr. G. Wilkie, agent of the New York and Erie Railroad Company, now on his way from New York to Liverpool to make arrangements
for the booking of passengers through to their respective destinations, to be a fair dealing man.
I feel it my duty strongly to recommend emigrants by way of Liverpool, not otherwise recommended, to take there passage through Mr. Henry Boyd, in the office of P. W. Byrnes & Co., 36, Waterloo-road, Liverpool. The lowest price of passage from Liverpool to the different
American ports varies much as follows: -
                                                  s.  d.          s.  d. Length of Passage
To Quebec                            2  10  0  to 3   5  0     41 days.
New York or Philadelphia      2  10  0  to 4   0  0     35 days.
New Orleans                          2   5  0  to 3   5  0
     Under 14 years of age half price; under 12 months free.  From London the fares are usually  1 higher than the above  rates.
     The best shape in which emigrants can take money to America  is English gold and silver, or Bank of England notes. English  money will pass as readily in America as in England, but  cannot be changed in England without loss.  The quantities of provisions which each passenger 14 years of  age is entitled to receive according to Act of Parliament on  the voyage to America, including the time of detention, if any,  at the port of embarkation, are -
    Water, at least 3 quarts daily, and the following "provisions,  after the rate per week -
    2 1/2 lbs. of Bread or Biscuit, not   inferior in quality to what is usually called Navy Biscuit;
    1lb. Wheaten Flour; 5lbs. of Oatmeal; 2lbs. of Rice; 2oz. Tea; 
    1/2lb. of Sugar; 1/2lb. of Molasses.
    "Provided always that such issue of provisions shall be made   in advance, and not less often than twice a week, the first  of such issues to be made on the day of embarkation."  Each passenger is entitled to lodging and provisions on board  from the day appointed for sailing in his ticket, or else to one shilling for every day of detention, and the same for 48  hours after arrival in America.
     As regards extra provisions, they must depend very much on taste and circumstances. In my recent voyage in the "Washington," from  Liverpool to New York, I took the following extra provisions,  which I found sufficient, and which were the same in quantity  and quality as I had been in the habit of supplying previously  to passengers whom I had assisted to emigrate to America; -
  1 1/2 stone Wheaten Flour; 6 lbs. Bacon; 2 1/2 lbs. Butter;  4 lb. Loaf, hard baked; 1/4 lb. Tea; 2 lbs. Brown Sugar; Salt; Soap; Bread Soda.
     These extra provisions cost 10s. 6d. I also took the following  articles, for the use of myself and messmate: -
                                                       s.   d.
Tin Water Can                                0    10
Large Tin Hook-Saucepan              0     8
Frying-pan                                      0    10
Large Tin Basin, for washing and
for preparing bread                          0     8
Chamber                                         0     3
Tin Teapot                                       0     4
Tin Kettle                                        0    10
Two deep Tin Plates                        0     4
Two Pint Mugs                                0     3
Two Knives, Forks, and Spoons      0     5
Barrel, and padlock,
     to hold provisions                        2     1
Small Calico Bags                             -
Towels and Rubbers                         -
Straw Mattrass                                 1     2
Blanket                                             2     0
Rug                                                  1     8
Sheets (each)                                   10 1/2
    I consider the above quantities of extra provisions to be plenty, so far as necessity is concerned, with the exception of a little vinegar in summer; a cheese, more flour, a few herrings, some potatoes and onions, and, in case of children, many little extras, such as suet, raisins, &c., would be, and were found to be, by many of my fellow-passengers, a palatable and desirable addition, particularly during the first fortnight, until the stomach becomes inured to the motion of the ship.
    The handles and spouts on all the tin articles should be rivetted on, as well as soldered. Families would do well to take with them a slop-pail and a broom. The bottoms of trunks should be kept off the damp floor by nailing a couple of strips of wood on to them.
    The extra articles of clothing most advisable to take, on account of their superior cheapness and quality in this country, are woollen clothing, and boots and shoes. Mechanics should take their
    Passengers should be particularly cleanly on board a crowded ship, to prevent ship fever from breaking out.
    I wish strongly to urge upon emigrants having friends in America, and upon individuals in this country aiding poor persons to emigrate., the advisability of endeavouring to make arrangements through the Bank of Ireland, Messrs. Baring, Brothers, or some other safe channel, to have a sum of money varying from 20s. to 30s. at least for each adult emigrant, deposited in secure hands at the port of arrival in America, to be given them there, to enable them to proceed up the country.
    In engaging for board and lodging in New York, care should be taken that a verbal agreement be supported by a printed card of prices, as the law directs; and payments should be made daily, at least for the first day or two, and all agreements should be made in dollars and cents: a dollar is equal to 4s. 2d. sterling, being composed of 100 cents, each of which exactly equals a halfpenny.
Emigrants should go at once into the interior, for the chances of employment are 100 to 1 against them at the seaport. The propensity of emigrants to remain about large cities, and especially those on the coast, is very much complained of by Americans, and with too much foundation. There they loiter, days, weeks, and months, lazy and indolent, spending in the meanwhile their precious money,
and still more precious time, quietly waiting for Providence to turn up something for them, until their last penny is spent, their trunks are retained by the lodging-house keepers, and they are turned out beggars on the streets. Providence seldom helps those who do not strive to help themselves.
    Intoxicating drinks are very cheap in America, and there, as   elsewhere, are the greatest curse to the labouring man, and the main obstacle in the way of bettering his condition.  Emigrants would do well to take the pledge before sailing.   As no liquors are to be got on the voyage, they will then  have a beautiful opportunity of breaking themselves into total abstinence.


DUBLIN. - Emigrants' Protection Society, Northumberland-buildings,and Government Emigration Agent.
LIVERPOOL, and all other Ports of Departure. - The Government Emigration Agent.
QUEBEC, MONTREAL, and TORONTO. - The Government Emigration Agent.
BOSTON. - Irish Emigrant Society, 4, Congress-square, near the Post Office; British Consul near the Post Office.
NEW YORK. - Government Commissioners of Emigration, City Hall buildings; Sisters of Mercy, Houston-street, near Broadway; Irish Emigrant Society, 29, Reade-street and 51,Chambers-street,
near the City Hall; British Protective Emigrant Society 86, Greenwich-street; British Consul, Barclay-street, near the City Hall.
PHILADELPHIA. - British Consul, near the Post Office. Subject to the Consul's approval emigrants may apply to the two following Societies: - American Emigrant's Friend Society, corner of Front and Water-streets; Rev. R. Thomason, Emigrant Society and Intelligence Office, corner of Front and Wallnut-streets.
NEW ORLEANS. - British Consul.
SAINT LOUIS. - Irish Emigrant Society, Third-street.
LOUISVILLE. - Irish Emigrant Society.
CINCINNATI. - Dr. Bushnell, Secretary of Relief Union.
ALBANY and BUFFALO. - Agent of Commissioners of Emigration.


LIVERPOOL. - Mr. Henry Boyd, 36, Waterloo Road.
NEW YORK. - George Wilkie, 67, Greenwich-street, for tickets on the New York and Erie Railroad only.
                             (Signed)   VERE-FOSTER.  5, Whitehall Yard, London, 31st March, 1852.
              A copy of the above information may be had for the asking, by any one who will pay the postage. *** Please to spread the above information among your neighbours.
Byfield Hawksworth, & Co. Stationers Charing Cross.